파이프, 스위치 그리고 컨텐츠

파이프는 정보를 유통하는 관을 말합니다. 스위치는 정보를 선택하여 진행할지 말지와 진행할 파이프를 결정합니다. 권력은 파이프 보다는 스위치에서 나옵니다. 스위치를 통해서 사적인 힘과 공적인 힘은 모두 정보에의 접근을 통제하고 정보를 감시할 수 있게 됩니다. 파이프와 스위치의 구조는 자연법칙에 따라서만 형성된 것은 아닙니다. 스위치를 가진 사람의 권력과 법에 따라 형성되는 측면이 강합니다. 네트워크와 장비 등이 기능하는 방식 나아가 표준과 기술이 정해지는 과정이 투명해야 하는 이유도 여기서 발견할 수 있습니다.

  • David J. Wallace, Changes in Phone Service Are Mixing Up Net Issues in Europe, New York Times, April 8, 1999
    • Previously complacent regional telecommunications companies in Europe now are able to compete across an entire continent, fostering competition on phone rates and reshaping the related issue of Internet use
  • Edmund L. Andrews, Internet Users In Germany Protest High Phone Rates, New York Times, November 2, 1998
    • German customers pay $1.10 to $2.90 an hour for local telephone service on top of Internet access fees that run about $2 an hour. Heavy Internet users can easily run up telephone bills exceeding $100 a month.
  • Seth Schiesel, 'Holy War' Over the Future of Wireless, New York Times, February 15, 1999
    • (The) process is being threatened by a general reluctance to compromise on arcane technical standards and in particular by intransigence on the part of Ericsson of Sweden and Qualcomm Inc., of San Diego, two big communications manufacturers that have feuded for years.
  • Sheryl WuDunn, Forced to Compete, Japan Becomes a Global Power, New York Times, July 27, 1999
    • Moreover, as in Europe, they have leaped into the digital era under the umbrella of compatibility – unlike in the United States, where competing technologies have actually stifled the advance of seamless and ubiquitous communication.
  • Bob Dole, Giving Away the Airwaves, March 27, 1997
    • In just a few days, the F.C.C. is going to give away the first broadcast licenses for digital television to broadcasters for absolutely nothing.
  • Bill Carter, F.C.C. Eases Limits on TV Station Ownership, New York Times, August 6, 1999
    • The Federal Communications Commission voted Thursday to relax rules that have limited television station ownership for most of the century, allowing for the first time a single company or network to own two separate stations in the nation's largest cities.
  • The Associated Press, Major Broadcasters Form Alliance to Provide Wireless Web Content, New York Times, March 8, 2000
    • Because digital TV signals require less capacity than traditional broadcasts, the new spectrum allocated to each station for digital TV has enough room to carry more than one program at a time or additional content such as iBlast's proposed downloads from the Web.
  • William Safire, Spectrum Squatters, New York Times, October 9, 2000
    • U.S. taxpayers, who invested $70 billion of spectrum value in broadcasters to get free digital TV, are forced to wait for decades.
  • Steven Labaton, Communications Lobby Puts Full-Court Press on Congress, New York Times, October 24, 2000
    • The measures would relax restrictions that have made it impossible for AT&T to expand further in the cable industry. They would save the regional Bell companies billions paid to local carriers that some rivals and groups say would be shifted to Internet users. And they would kill a plan to create hundreds of new low- power FM stations for churches, schools and community groups.
  • Stephen Labaton, Appellate Court Eases Limitations for Media Giants, New York Times, February 20, 2002
    • A federal appeals court handed a huge victory to the nation's largest television networks and cable operators today, ruling that the government had to reconsider sharp limits on the number of stations a network can own and striking down the regulation that had restricted cable operators from owning television stations.
  • John Markoff, Microsoft Ready to Invest $1 Billion in US West Cable Business, New York Times, November 5, 1997
    • Microsoft's push into cable is causing alarm among its competitors, who fear that the software giant is intent on translating its dominance of the PC world into a similar position in digital television and the Internet.
  • Bill Carter, TV Networks Confront Need for Radical Change, New York Times, January 2, 1999
    • More than ever, the real value of the network business resides in owning stations. The networks want to own more, and they will continue to press the Federal Communications Commission to change the current limits so they can buy more.
  • Sam Howe Verhovek, AT&T Fights for Control in Struggle Over Internet Access, New York Times, February 15, 1999
    • They believed AT&T would have a monopoly on cable access to the Internet and should instead be forced to open the cable lines to other Internet service providers, much as the telecommunications giant was once required to lease its telephone lines to competing long-distance carriers.
  • Jeri Clausing, Internet Providers' Demands on High-Speed Data Rejected, New York Times, April 14, 1999
    • Senator McCain rejected calls from Stephen M. Case, chief executive of America Online Inc., and others that cable companies be forced to open their networks to competitors for high-speed data, or broadband, services.
  • Seth Schiesel, News Analysis: Tasty Morsels and Digestive Challenges for AT&T, New York Times, April 26, 1999
    • AT&T, with its superior financial power, will scare off Comcast and win Mediaone – if regulators allow it. That would make AT&T the nation's No. 1 cable television company, in addition to the nation's No. 1 long-distance telephone carrier.
  • Seth Schiesel, AT&T Is in Talks With Microsoft on a Wide-Ranging Alliance, New York Times, May 6, 1999
    • Microsoft is to invest about $5 billion in AT&T, perhaps in exchange for some sort of preferred stock in AT&T, according to executives close to the talks. AT&T would also agree to use Microsoft's software in its integrated packages of voice, video and data service.
  • Stephen Labaton, Internet Fight for Access to AT&T's Cable Lines Creates Unusual Alliances, New York Times, August 13, 1999
    • Led by America Online and G.T.E., a coalition of Internet service providers and other telephone companies have mounted a nationwide campaign to force AT&T to let cable customers use Internet providers other than Excite@Home without additional fees.
    • 전기통신사업법상 VOD서비스는 부가통신서비스로서 신고만으로 누구라도 서비스를 제공할 수 있는 반면, 방송법은 이를 방송의 일종으로 해석할 여지가 있고 이 경우 종합유선방송사업자가 VOD서비스를 제공하려면 변경허가를 통하여 방송프로그램의 편성 및 채널 운용, 방송광고 등에 있어 별도의 까다로운 규제를 받게 된다
    • The U.S. Federal Communications Commission voted 3-2 to allow broadcasters to voluntarily use the new technology, dubbed ATSC 3.0, which would allow for more precise geolocating of television signals, ultra-high definition picture quality and more interactive programming
  • Ronna Abramson, Microsoft Acquires VoIP Firm, TheStreet.com, Aug. 31, 2005
    • Competitors Google and Yahoo, as well as Microsoft are increasingly linking Internet technologies for search and communication to capture a greater share of users' time on the desktop,
  • Anne Broache, eBay to nab Skype for $2.6 billion, C|Net News.com, Sept. 12, 2005
    • eBay hopes to integrate the service with its e-commerce operations, allowing buyers and sellers to communicate through VoIP
  • Marguerite Reardon, VoIP providers band together, C|Net News.com, Nov. 2, 2005
    • Voice over IP has the potential to revolutionize the way we all communicate, providing high-quality, low-cost alternatives to traditional phone lines
  • Anne Braoche, Senators back Net phone reprieve, C|Net News.com, Nov. 2, 2005
    • FCC regulations adopted in May set a Nov. 28 deadline by which Net phone operators must re-engineer their systems to connect users to the enhanced 911 network
  • Declan McCullagh & Anne Broache, Wiretap rules for VoIP, broadband coming in 2007, C|Net News.com, Sept. 26, 2005
    • It is clearly not in the public interest to allow terrorists and criminals to avoid lawful surveillance by law enforcement agencies by using broadband Internet access services,
  • Declan McCullagh, FBI Net-wiretapping rules face challenges, C|Net News.com, Oct. 24, 2005
    • The FCC simply does not have the statutory authority to extend the 1994 law for the telephone system to the 21st century Internet,
  • Leslie Cauley, VoIP no bargain for cities losing phone-tax revenue, USA Today, June 20, 2005
    • Cities have long depended on telecom taxes to help pay for everything from sewer lines to teachers' salaries. Internet telephony, considered an “information service,” operates largely tax-free.
  • John Leyden, Skype plugs Android privacy flaw, The Register, April 21, 2011
    • The update plugs a hole that created a possible mechanism for third-party apps to get access to private data (name, phone number, chat logs etc) held on the Skype directory on Android devices.
  • John Markoff, The Corner Internet Network vs. the Cellular Giants, New York Times, March 4, 2002
    • Modeled closely on the original nature of the Internet, which grew by chaining together separate computer networks, the technology – known as wireless mesh routing – is being rapidly embraced in the United States as well as in the developing world, where it is viewed as a low-cost method for quickly building network infrastructure.
    • Regional and long-distance phone companies, who sell broadband Internet to consumers and businesses, have in recent months intensified a national campaign to quash municipal wireless initiatives
  • Declan McCullagh, Philly, Verizon reach accord on city Wi-Fi plan, C|Net News.com, Dec. 1, 2004
    • municipal governments are permitted to go ahead with their projects if the local government “has submitted a written request” to the local telephone company, and if that company declines to offer the service.
  • Dianah Neff, Hands off our Wi-Fi network, C|Net News.com, Feb. 10, 2005
    • the incumbent local exchange carriers want unregulated monopolies over all telecommunications.
  • Lawrence Lessig, Why Your Broadband Sucks, Wired, March 2005
    • the government also should not act as the cat's paw for one of the most powerful industries in the nation by making competition against that industry illegal, whether from government or not.
  • Robert Weisman, Hub sets citywide WiFi plan, Boston Globe, Jul 31, 2006
    • Boston's plan would seek to promote competition between any number of Internet service providers that would piggyback on the network and offer access through their sites.
  • Stephen Lawson, Wi-Fi Mesh Lights Up Mecca for Hajj, IDG/NYT, Dec 19, 2007
    • A network of about 70 meshed routers from Tropos Networks has been set up to provide free Internet connectivity
    • the global growth of smartphones – all are handheld computers easily capable of supporting mesh networking stacks – should lead to a global infrastructure shift, in which these handsets become a bigger part of the infrastructure itself, not just clients on it.
  • MuniWireless, Reports on Municipal Wireless and Broadband Projects
  • Wu, Tim, Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination. Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law, Vol. 2, p. 141, 2003.
    • The principle achieves this by adopting the basic principle that broadband operators should have full freedom to “police what they own” (the local network) while restrictions based on inter-network indicia should be viewed with suspicion
  • Lawrence Lessig, Congress must keep broadband competition alive, Financial Times, Oct 18, 2006
    • When you can charge content providers a premium for access to a premium internet, what incentive is there to improve the rest of the internet?
  • David Meyer, BT says no to traffic shaping, ZDNet.co.uk, Apr 12, 2007
    • In 2005 Ofcom forced BT to open up access to its exchanges to other providers a practice known as unbundling.
  • Grant Gross, FCC: Comcast blocking was widespread, IDG News Service, Apr 22, 2008
    • Comcast's blocking of BitTorrent P-to-P (peer-to-peer) traffic appeared to happen when there wasn't network congestion
  • Edward Wyatt, House Votes Against ‘Net Neutrality’, NY Times, April 8, 2011
    • without the F.C.C.’s open Internet policy, broadband companies that also own content providers, like Comcast’s ownership of NBC, would be free to block the Web sites of competitors.
    • 망 중립성의 큰 원칙만을 재확인했을 뿐, mVoIP 차단과 망 이용대가 부과, 스마트TV 관련 내용 등 이해 관계자의 입장이 가장 첨예하게 부딪히는 사항에 대해서는 “논의를 지속하겠다”라며 판단을 유보
    • ▲투명성(트래픽 관리정보의 충분한 공개 여부) ▲비례성(트래픽 관리행위가 그 목적과 동기에 부합하는지 여부) ▲비차별성(망사업자-콘텐츠 제공사의 유사한 콘텐츠간 불합리한 차별 여부) ▲망의 기술적 특성 등 4대 기준을 제시
  • 강희종, 정부, "제로레이팅 요금제 막지 않겠다", 아시아경제, 2016. 5. 31.
    • 아직 전세계적으로 규제 체계가 확립돼 있지 않고 국내에서도 법적으로 문제가 없어 사업자가 원한다면 막지 않는다는 것이 기본 원칙
  • 김인성, 통신사를 국유화해야 할 7가지 이유 (1/4) (2/4) (3/4) (4/4), , 민중의 소리, 2017-01-18~27
    • 통신사들은 IPTV 망에 인터넷 방송국에 대한 진입을 허용하지 않았습니다. 통신사들은 IPTV 망을 자기들이 구축했다는 이유로 IPTV 메뉴를 자기들이 원하는 콘텐츠만 파는 곳으로 만들었습니다.
    • 자체 데이터센터에 SKT, KT, LGU+ 각각 직접 접속을 하면 한 통신사에 장애가 생겨도 접속에 문제가 없을 뿐만 아니라, 각 통신사 가입자들의 서비스 속도도 높일 수 있다는 장점도 생깁니다. 하지만 통신사들이 직접 접속을 허용하지 않고 있는 탓에 결국 데이터센터 구축을 포기하고 말았습니다.
    • 통신사들이 외국 서비스에게 특혜를 주는 것도 모자라 한국에 유치한 외국 기업에도 특혜를 주고 있는 반면 국내 기업은 통신사에게 이중 삼중으로 고통받고 있습니다.
    • 비싼 국제망 사용료로 인해 해외 사용자의 국내 서비스 접속이 어려워 국내 인터넷 서비스는 글로벌화가 되지 못하고 있습니다.
    • 다양성에 기반하여 성장해온 인터넷에 존재하는 자율적 네트워크들의 상호접속 관계를 소수의 제한적인 항목들(망 규모, 가입자 수, 트래픽 교환비율)로 표준을 작성하고 이에 기반한 평가에 의해 형성되도록 강제한다는 것은 근본적으로 비합리적일뿐더러 ‘비인터넷적’인 시도다.
    • 콘텐츠를 만들어내지 않는 사업자는 콘텐츠 외의 차별적인 가치 요소가 필수적이다. 이를 통해 가입자 기반을 확보해야 하고, 플랫폼 비즈니스 모델의 반대편에 있는 콘텐츠 사업자에 대한 협상력을 유지해야 한다. 유료방송의 위기는 이러한 선순환 구조가 점차 어려워지고 있기 때문이다.
    • 첨단 ICT 기술과 플랫폼, 그리고 자본력을 무기로 콘텐츠 시장에 진입하는 기업들, 오랜 사업 경험과 네트워크로 이를 방어하려는 기업들. 뺏으려는 자와 지키려는 자 간의 경쟁은 이미 시작되었다
    • the idea driving the talks was that Time Warner could help AT&T build out its own video streaming service. That service, called DirecTV Now, is Mr. Stephenson’s response to the migration of consumers toward mobile and online video watching and away from traditional cable packages.