엿보기 사회와 국가권력

기업과 정부는 같은 정보 수집 분석 기술을 사용합니다. 다만 사용하는 목적이 다를 뿐입니다. 기업은 정보를 수집하고 분석하여 고객의 취향을 보다 잘 파악하여 그에 맞는 상품 또는 서비스를 제공하거나, 구매를 자극하기 위하여 사용합니다. 정부는 같은 기술을 사용하여 정보를 수집하고 분석하되 시민을 감시하고 관찰하여 통제하는데 사용합니다. 상업화라는 목적으로 기술이 발전하고 정부는 발전된 기술에 올라탑니다. 정부 권력의 한계를 정한 헌법을 기술의 도입과 발전에 맞추어 적극적으로 해석할 필요가 있습니다. 헌법이 만들어질 당시에는 인터넷이 없었으므로 인터넷으로 인하여 변화된 사회상을 반영하지 않으면, 효과적으로 시민의 권리를 보호할 수 없기 때문입니다. 예를 들어 개인의 집 등 장소를 중심으로 사생활을 보호하던 체계는, 수많은 개인에 대한 정보가 디지털화 되어 전송됨으로써 개인의 집을 벗어나 보관되는 현실에서는 한계를 가집니다. 더 이상 데이터를 보관하는 장소를 지키는 기업이 데이터의 실질적인 이해관계를 가지는 개인의 이익을 적극적으로 보호해 준다는 보장이 없기 때문입니다.

    • 유선중계통신망 감청장비(R-2)가 막 개발된 시점에 도청 대상자의 전화번호를 대량으로 입력해 본격 사용했고, 주요 현안에 대한 첩보 수집을 지시하는 등 적극 관여한 사례가 확인됐다. 또 이동식 휴대전화 감청장비(CAS)를 개발해 본격 사용
  • Associated Press, Swiss police spy marijuana field with Google Earth, Business Week, January 29, 2009
    • Swiss police said Thursday they stumbled across a large marijuana plantation while using Google Earth, the search engine company’s satellite mapping software.
  • Declan McCullagh & Elinor Mills, Feds take porn fight to Google, C|Net News.com, January 19, 2006
    • a “random sampling” of 1 million Internet addresses.. and a random sampling of 1 million search queries submitted to Google over a one-week period.
  • Reuters, Privacy experts condemn Google subpoena, C|Net News.com, January 20, 2006
    • the case was a wake-up call to all Internet users that information was being collected on them all the time and was stored indefinitely.
  • Katie Hafner & Matt Richtel, Google Resists U.S. Subpoena of Search Data, New York Times, January 20, 2006
    • By asserting its power over search engines, using threats of force, the government can directly affect what the Internet experience is.
  • Joshua L. Simmons, Buying You: The Government's Use of Fourth-Parties to Launder Data about 'The People', Columbia Business Law Review, Vol. 2009, No. 3, p. 950
    • They are in the business of acquiring information, not from the information’s originator (the first-party), nor from the information’s anticipated recipient (the second-party), but from the unavoidable digital intermediaries that transmit and store the information (third-parties).
  • Lara Jakes Jordan, More FBI Privacy Violations Confirmed, The Associated Press, Mar 6, 2008
    • the FBI demanded personal records without official authorization or otherwise collected more data than allowed
  • Yvonne Singh, Why are we fingerprinting children?, The Guardian, March 7, 2009
    • this drive towards fingerprinting children coincides with the government's keenness to expand the national DNA database
  • Nicole Kobie, Government looks to ISPs as it cuts comms database plan, IT Pro, April 27, 2009
    • Officials from dozens of departments and quangos could know what you read online, and who all your friends are, who you emailed, when, and where you were when you did so - all without a warrant.
  • Dan Kaplan, Requiring ISPs to retain user logs, SC Magazine, March 1, 2011
    • The Department of Justice (DoJ), with likely blessing from the new Republican majority, is pushing for a law mandating the retention of user data by internet service providers (ISPs).
  • Declan McCullagh, Privacy dispute tests Obama's earlier promises, CNET, April 8, 2011
    • extending the probable cause requirement to cover law enforcement access to the contents of electronic communications and cell (location) information.”
  • Peter Cohan, Project Chess: How U.S. Snoops On Your Skype, Forbes, Jun 20, 2013
    • Skype began Project Chess, “to explore the legal and technical issues in making Skype calls readily available to intelligence agencies and law enforcement officials
  • JAMES GLANZ, JEFF LARSON, ANDREW W. LEHREN, Spy Agencies Tap Data Streaming From Phone Apps, The New York Times, JAN. 27, 2014
    • With each new generation of mobile phone technology, ever greater amounts of personal data pour onto networks where spies can pick it up.
  • SFLC.in and World Wide Web Foundation, India's Surveillance State, September 2014.
    • license agreements entered into between Indian communications service providers and the Department of Telecommunications contain clauses that mandate inter alia, the installation of unspecified surveillance equipment into communication networks..
  • Leon Neyfakh, The Future of Getting Arrested , The Atlantic, January/February 2015 Issue
    • We’re approaching a world where it’s becoming technologically possible to ensure 100 percent compliance with a lot of laws
  • 최혜정, 역대 국정원, 도·감청 사례 보니…, 한겨례, 2015. 7. 10.
    • “국정원은 국회 정보위원회에 모든 활동을 보고한다고 주장하고 있지만, 제대로 된 국회의 통제를 받고 있지 않다”
  • European Court of Human Rights, Grand Chamber, Zakharov v. Russia, No. 47143/06, December 4 2015
    • The Court concludes that Russian legal provisions governing interceptions of communications do not provide for adequate and effective guarantees against arbitrariness and the risk of abuse which is inherent in any system of secret surveillance, and which is particularly high in a system where the secret services and the police have direct access, by technical means, to all mobile telephone communications.
  • Matt Cagle, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter Provided Data Access for a Surveillance Product Marketed to Target Activists of Color, ACLU, October 11, 2016
    • Because Geofeedia obtained this access to Twitter, Facebook and Instagram as a developer, it could access a flow of data that would otherwise require an individual to “scrape” user data off of the services in an automated fashion that is prohibited by the terms of service
  • Maryam Shah, Government greater threat to privacy, report claims, Toronto Sun, November 08, 2016
    • The first way to increase privacy is to demand greater transparency from the government, and the second is to not have the government limit our control over our sharing of information.”
  • Chris Baraniuk, Florida court says iPhone passcode must be revealed, BBC, 13 December 2016
    • a defendant could be made to surrender a key to a strongbox containing incriminating documents but they could not “be compelled to reveal the combination to his wall safe”.
  • Cade Metz, Uncle Sam Wants Your Deep Neural Networks, The New York Times, JUNE 22, 2017
    • On Thursday, the department, working with Google, introduced a $1.5 million contest to build computer algorithms that can automatically identify concealed items in images captured by checkpoint body scanners.
  • Mark Townsend & Paul Harris, Security role for traffic cameras, Guardian, February 9, 2003
    • This is where we are told that a system is being set up and used for a certain purpose and then we find out it is being used for another totally different one.
  • Photo Ticket Cameras to Track Drivers Nationwide, TheNewspaper.com, September 16, 2008
    • Private companies in the US are hoping to use red light cameras and speed cameras as the basis for a nationwide surveillance network similar to one that will be active next year in the UK.
  • Karen Ann Cullotta, Chicago Links Street Cameras to Its 911 Network, New York Times, February 20, 2009.
    • We can now immediately take a look at the crime scene if the 911 caller is in a location within 150 feet of one of our surveillance cameras,
    • any police officer can add any license number to the database of “people of interest” and every time that license plate passes a camera, the local police force will receive an urgent alert, and can pull over the car, detain the driver, and search the car and its passengers under the Terrorism Act.

* 경찰은 이날 오후 5시부터 5시간 정도 최소 10회 이상 줌인-아웃을 하며 집회 참가자 50여명을 쫓아다녔다.

  • 오길영, "통신데이터 남용의 실태와 그 쟁점“, 민주법학 제55호, 2014.7, 119-151쪽.
    • 모든 개인의 모든 전자통신 수단과 트래픽 정보를 어떠한 구별이나 제한 또는 예외가 없이 중대범죄 와의 전쟁이라는 목표 하에서 다루도록 하고 있다는 점, 그러한 침해를 정당화할 만큼 심각한 위법행위에 대해서만 데이터를 접근 사용한다는 것을 보장하는 객관적인 기준을 가지고 있지 않다는 점, 데이터의 보관기간의 설정이 꼭 필요한 경우로 한정되기 위한 객관적인 기준을 마련하고 있지 않다는 점
    • 전기통신 이용자를 포함한 외부에 대하여 통신사실 확인자료 제공 사항을 공개·누설하지 말아야 할 의무를 계속하여 부담하므로, 이용자의 공개 요구에도 응할 의무가 없(고), 이용자의 이메일 압수·수색 사항의 열람·제공 요구에 응할 의무가 없다.
    • 수사기관이 집회 참가자 신원파악을 위해 통신자료를 이용한 것으로 의심되며, 통신사찰의 분량과 분포를 볼 때 특정 기지국을 통해 송수신된 통신자료 전반을 들춰본 것 아니냐는 의문도 제기된다
  • Joe Palazzolo, No Warrant Required for Phone Location Records, Court Rules, The Wall Street Journal, Apr 13, 2016
    • Cell-site datalike mailing addresses, phone numbers, and IP addressesare information that facilitate personal communications, rather than part of the content of those communications themselves
    • 전기통신사업법 제54조 제3항에서 수사기관의 요청에 의하여 전기통신사업자가 제공할 수 있는 이용자의 통신자료는 그 이용자의 인적 사항에 관한 정보로서, 이는 주로 수사의 초기단계에서 범죄의 피의자와 피해자를 특정하기 위하여 가장 기초적이고 신속하게 확인하여야 할 정보에 해당하는데, 위 규정에 의한 전기통신사업자의 통신자료 제공으로 범죄에 대한 신속한 대처 등 중요한 공익을 달성할 수 있음에 비하여, 통신자료가 제공됨으로써 제한되는 사익은 해당 이용자의 인적 사항에 한정된다.
    • 정보가 압호화 되어 있..(는 경우) 압수한 정보의 암호를 해독하여 내용을 인지할 수 있도록 하는 등 정보관리자의 협조를 강제로 확보할 수 있는 절차가 필요..
    • 수사기관이 트로이 목마와 같은 수법을 이용하여 피의자 등의 컴퓨터에 성공적으로 스파이 웨어를 설치할 수만 있다면, 현대 정보화 사회에서 매우 효과적인 범죄 투쟁수단으로 이용될 수 있을 것이다.
    • 디지털 증거는 기존의 유체물 증거에 비해서는삭제나 변조가 쉽고, 네트웍을 통해 장소적 이동이 용이한 특징을 가지나 반대로 아날로그 통신에 비해서는 보존석이나 장소적 고정성이 높은 특성을 지니는 제3의 증거방법으로 보아야 한다.
  • Julia Angwin, Jeff Larson, The NSA Revelations All in One Chart, ProPublica, June 30, 2014
    • This is a plot of the NSA programs revealed in the past year according to whether they are bulk or targeted, and whether the targets of surveillance are foreign or domestic.
    • For the last two years, the FBI has been quietly experimenting with drive-by hacks as a solution to one of law enforcement’s knottiest Internet problems: how to identify and prosecute users of criminal websites hiding behind the powerful Tor anonymity system.
  • Micah Lee, Secret ‘BADASS’ Intelligence Program Spied on Smartphones, The Intercept, January 26, 2015
    • intelligence agents applied BADASS software filters to streams of intercepted internet traffic, plucking from that traffic unencrypted uploads from smartphones to servers run by advertising and analytics companies.
  • Matt Apuzzo, David E. Sanger and Michael S. Schmidt, Apple and Other Tech Companies Tangle With U.S. Over Data Access, New York Times, SEPT. 7, 2015
    • The conflicts with Apple and Microsoft reflect heightened corporate resistance, in the post-Edward J. Snowden era, by American technology companies intent on demonstrating that they are trying to protect customer information.
  • Matt Apuzzo, WhatsApp Encryption Said to Stymie Wiretap Order, The New York Times, MARCH 12, 2016
    • the company has been adding encryption to those conversations, making it impossible for the Justice Department to read or eavesdrop, even with a judge’s wiretap order.
  • Orin Kerr, Government ‘hacking’ and the Playpen search warrant, The Washington Post, September 27, 2016
    • According to the Playpen warrant, when a visitor logged in to the site with a username and password, the NIT would be secretly installed on the visitor’s personal computer. The NIT would then send the government identifying information about the user’s computer, most importantly the computer’s true IP address from inside the user’s machine.
  • Laura Hautala, Trump presidency fuels heated encryption debate, CNET, November 17, 2016
    • Too many law enforcement advocates act like there must be a technical compromise that experts just are too stubborn to find. But that's not the case, because encryption is based on hard math, not compromises..
  • MATTATHIAS SCHWARTZ, Cyberwar for Sale, The New York Times, JAN. 4, 2017
    • with the rise of private firms like Hacking Team, penetrating the email accounts of political opponents does not require the kind of money and expertise available to major powers.
  • 이경탁, 정부 차원 `인터넷 암시장 다크웹` 차단 추진, 디지털 타임즈, 2017-02-14
    • 정부는 다크웹 내 범죄정보를 색인해 검색하고 토르, 프리넷(freenet), I2P 등 다크웹 브라우저 및 프로토콜과 다크웹 내 유통되는 암호화폐 분석을 통해 범죄자 정보를 프로파일링할 수 있는 기술을 개발한다.
  • Vault 7: CIA Hacking Tools Revealed, wikileaks, 7 March 2017
    • “Year Zero” introduces the scope and direction of the CIA's global covert hacking program, its malware arsenal and dozens of “zero day” weaponized exploits against a wide range of U.S. and European company products, include Apple's iPhone, Google's Android and Microsoft's Windows and even Samsung TVs, which are turned into covert microphones.
  • SCOTT SHANE, DAVID E. SANGER and VINDU GOEL, WikiLeaks Will Help Tech Companies Fix Security Flaws, Assange Says, The New York Times, MARCH 9, 2017
    • A new RAND Corporation study concludes that these “zero day” exploits, and the vulnerabilities they are based on, last longer than most thought. It found that the average vulnerability had a “life expectancy” of 6.9 years before it became useless to hackers.
  • 신한슬, 풀리지 않는 ‘잠금 해제’ 논란, 시사IN, 2016년 05월 12일
    • 모바일 기기의 보안 기능이 진화할수록, 그 취약점을 찾아내 ‘잠금 해제 서비스’를 판매하는 ‘시장’도 커지고 있는 것이다.
  • Dan Eggen, Bush Authorized Domestic Spying, Washington Post, December 16, 2005
    • monitoring domestic telephone conversations, e-mail and even fax communications of individuals identified by the NSA as having some connection to al Qaeda events or figures, or to potential terrorism-related activities in the United States
  • Kelli Arena, Bush says he signed NSA wiretap order, CNN.com, December 17, 2005
    • Bush said such authorization is “fully consistent” with his “constitutional responsibilities and authorities.”
  • Terry Frieden, Gonzales to testify on domestic spying, CNN.com, January 13, 2006
    • The White House has said Article II of the Constitution and a post-9/11 law allowing the president to use force against al Qaeda gave Bush license to circumvent the secret court and approve the program.
  • Asst. Attorney General William E. Moschella, DOJ Letter on Legal Authority for NSA Surveillance, December 22, 2005
    • This constitutional authority includes the authority to order warrantless foreign intelligence surveillance within the United States
    • the AUMF and FISA must be construed in harmony to avoid any potential conflict
    • Intercepting communications into and out of the United States of persons linked to al Qaeda in order to detect and prevent a catastrophic attack is clearly reasonable.
  • ACLU, NSA Spying Complaint, January 17, 2006
    • Under the Program, the NSA accesses communications in at least three ways. First, the NSA uses NSA-ontrolled satellite dishes to access communications that are transmitted via satellite. ..Second, the NSA works with telecommunications companies to access communications that pass through switches controlled by these companies…Third, the NSA works with Internet providers and telecommunications companies to access communications transmitted over the Internet.
  • Eric Lichtblau, Top Aide Defends Domestic Spying, New York Times, February 7, 2006
    • the president had the power to order the eavesdropping under both the Constitution and a Congressional resolution authorizing the use of force to fight terrorism.
  • Sen. Patrick Leahy, Statement, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing on Wartime Executive Power and the NSA's Surveillance Authority, February 6, 2006
    • The President's secret wiretapping program is not authorized by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
    • The Authorization for the Use of Military Force that Democratic and Republican lawmakers joined together to pass in the days immediately after the September 11 attacks did not give the President the authority to go around the FISA law to wiretap Americans illegally.
  • Alberto Gonzales, Prepared Testimony, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing on Wartime Executive Power and the NSA's Surveillance Authority, February 6, 2006
    • An open discussion of the operational details of this program would put the lives of Americans at risk.
  • CHARLIE SAVAGE and JONATHAN WEISMAN, N.S.A. Collection of Bulk Call Data Is Ruled Illegal, The New York Times, MAY 7, 2015
    • a provision of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, known as Section 215, cannot be legitimately interpreted to allow the bulk collection of domestic calling records.

미국

  • Paul Kane, Senate Authorizes Broad Expansion Of Surveillance Act, Washington Post, February 13, 2008
    • The most important change…would make permanent a law approved last August that expanded the government's authority to intercept – without a court order – the phone calls and e-mails of people in the United States communicating with others overseas.
  • James Risen and Eric Lichtblau, Court Affirms Wiretapping Without Warrants, NY Times, January 15, 2009
    • telecommunications companies must cooperate with the government to intercept international phone calls and e-mail of American citizens suspected of being spies or terrorists
    • telecommunications companies must cooperate with the government to intercept international phone calls and e-mail of American citizens suspected of being spies or terrorists.eavesdropping on Americans believed to be agents of a foreign power “possesses characteristics that qualify it for such an exception.”
  • Charlie Savage and Laura Poitras, How a Court Secretly Evolved, Extending U.S. Spies’ Reach, New York Times, MARCH 11, 2014
    • The Raw Take order significantly changed that system, documents show, allowing counterterrorism analysts at the N.S.A., the F.B.I. and the C.I.A. to share unfiltered personal information.

영국

  • DAVID ANDERSON Q.C. Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, REPORT OF THE BULK POWERS REVIEW, August 2016
    • some 60 detailed case studies provided by MI5, MI6 and GCHQ, together with associated intelligence reports

프랑스

독일

한국

  • 윤호우, 테러방지법은 어떻게 탄생했나, 경향신문, 2016. 2. 27.
    • 지난해 11월 13일 프랑스 파리에서 동시다발적으로 테러가 발생하면서 테러방지법 논의는 급물살을 탔다.
  • Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill and Laura Poitras, Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations, June 11, 2013
    • I'm willing to sacrifice all of that because I can't in good conscience allow the US government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they're secretly building
  • Jennifer Sullivan, Controversial measure would require DNA sampling at arrest, The Seattle Times, February 4, 2009
    • More than a dozen states already allow law enforcement to collect DNA from suspects before they are convicted. Three more states, including Washington, are considering such proposals this year.
    • 다수 : 이 사건 채취조항들에 의하여 제한되는 신체의 자유의 정도는 일상생활 중에서도 경험할 수 있는 정도의 미약한 것으로서 외상이나 생리적 기능의 저하를 수반하지 아니한다는 점에서, 범죄수사 및 범죄예방 등에 기여하고자 하는 공익에 비하여 크다고 할 수 없어 법익의 균형성도 인정된다
    • 소수 :이 사건 채취조항들은 행위자의 재범의 위험성 요건에 대하여 전혀 규정하지 않고 특정 범죄를 범한 수형인등에 대하여 획일적으로 디엔에이감식시료를 채취할 수 있게 한다는 점에서 침해최소성 원칙에 어긋나고, 재범의 위험성 요건에 관한 규정이 없는 이 사건 채취조항들로 인하여 받게 되는 수형인등의 불이익이 이 사건 채취조항들을 통해 달성하고자 하는 공익에 비해 결코 작지 아니하므로 법익균형성 원칙에도 어긋난다.

새로운 기술의 발전과 사생활 자유에 관한 미국 판례

  • Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 (1928)
    • Small wires were inserted along the ordinary telephone wires from the residences of four of the petitioners and those leading from the chief office. The insertions were made without trespass upon any property of the defendants. They were made in the basement of the large office building. The taps from house lines were made in the streets near the houses…We think, therefore, that the wiretapping here disclosed did not amount to a search or seizure within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.
  • Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)
    • telephone conversations, overheard by FBI agents who had attached an electronic listening and recording device to the outside of a public telephone booth from which he had placed his calls
    • the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places… What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his home or office, is not subject to Fourth Amendment protection. But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected.
    • concurrence: there is a twofold requirement, first that a person have exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation of privacy and, second, that the expectation be one that society is prepared to recognize as ‘reasonable.’
  • United States v. Knotts, 460 U.S. 276 (1983)
    • Minnesota law enforcement officers arranged with the seller to place a beeper (a radio transmitter) inside a chloroform container.. Officers then followed the car in which the chloroform was placed..to respondent's secluded cabin in Wisconsin. Following three days of intermittent visual surveillance of the cabin, officers secured a search warrant and discovered..a drug laboratory in the cabin
    • Monitoring the beeper signals did not invade any legitimate expectation of privacy on respondent's part..A person traveling in an automobile on public thoroughfares has no reasonable expectation of privacy in his movements. ot alter the situation.
  • Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001)
    • the police had used a thermal imager to determine whether a suspect was growing marijuana in his home.
    • uses a device that is not in general public use, to explore the details of the home that would previously have been unknowable without physical intrusion, the surveillance is a ‘search’ and is presumptively unreasonable without a warrant.
  • United States v. Jones, 565 U.S. _ (2012)
    • the attachment of a Global-Positioning-System (GPS) tracking device to an individual’s vehicle, and subsequent use of that device to monitor the vehicle’s movements on public streets,
    • The Government physically occupied private property for the purpose of obtaining information. We have no doubt that such a physical intrusion would have been considered a “search”
  • Riley v. California, 573 U.S. _ (2014)
    • petitioner Riley was stopped for a traffic violation, which eventually led to his arrest on weapons charges. An officer searching Riley incident to the arrest seized a cell phone from Riley's pants pocket. The officer accessed information on the phone and noticed the repeated use of a term associated with a street gang. At the police station two hours later, a detective specializing in gangs further examined the phone's digital contents. Based in part on photographs and videos that the detective found, the State charged Riley in connection with a shooting that had occurred a few weeks earlier and sought an enhanced sentence based on Riley's gang membership.
    • the Court generally determines whether to exempt a given type of search from the warrant requirement “by assessing, on the one hand, the degree to which it intrudes upon an individual's privacy and, on the other, the degree to which it is needed for the promotion of legitimate governmental interests.”… But a search of digital information on a cell phone does not further the government interests identified in Chimel, and implicates substantially greater individual privacy interests than a brief physical search.
  • Kenneth K. Dort 외, United States v. Caira: Reasonable Expectations of (Data) Privacy in Digital World?, the National Law Review, September 6, 2016
    • The Seventh Circuit stated that Caira had voluntarily shared his IP address with a third party, namely Microsoft, when accessing his Hotmail account from his home computer. …But how can one define a “voluntary” disclosure in the digital universe, where such disclosures may be happening under the surface and without the explicit knowledge of or any affirmative action by the owner of that data?

프라이버시에 관한 주목할 이론

  • Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis, “The Right to Privacy”, 4 Harvard Law Review 193 (1890)
    • Political, social, and economic changes entail the recognition of new rights
Boundary Management 이론
  • Margot E. Kaminski, “Regulating Real-World Surveillance,” 90 Wash. L. Rev. 1113 (2015),
    • Using social psychologist Irwin Altman’s framework of “boundary management” as a jumping-off point, I conceptualize privacy harm as interference in an individual’s ability to dynamically manage disclosure and social boundaries. Stemming from this understanding of privacy, the government has two related interests in enacting laws prohibiting surveillance: an interest in providing notice so that an individual can adjust her behavior; and an interest in prohibiting surveillance to prevent undesirable behavioral shift
Digital Dossier 이론
  • Solove, Daniel, The Digital Person, edited by Daniel J Solove, NYU Press, 2004)
    • The problem is not simply a loss of control over personal information, nor is there a diabolical motive or plan for domination as with Big Brother. The problem is a bureaucratic process that is uncontrolled.