민주주의 사회와 넷

인터넷이 민주주의의 발전에 기여할까요. 권력을 감시하고, 국민의 뜻을 대변한다는 의미에서 신속하고 저렴한 정보의 유통은 분명 긍정적인 요소입니다. 다만 현재와 같이 정보에의 접근과 정보 감시가 광범위하게 허용된다면 오히려 통제의 수단으로 사용될 가능성도 어느때보다 높습니다.

  • Leslie Wayne, Regulators Confront Web Role in Politics, New York Times, April 21, 2000
    • Traditionally, the government regulates political activity by regulating the flow of money…But in the cyberworld, costs are minimal.
  • Declan McCullagh, Liberal Net rules spawn political attack ads, C|Net News.com, May 6, 2004
    • thanks to changes in campaign law that have largely taken effect this year, candidates do not have to endorse their own Internet spots–something that's mandated in radio and television under a measure known as the “stand by your ad” requirement.
  • Declan McCullagh, The coming crackdown on blogging, C|Net News.com, March 3, 2005
    • If someone sets up a home page and links to their favorite politician, is that a contribution?
  • Ellen Weintraub, Bloggers, chill out already, C|Net News.com, March 7, 2005
    • the context here has everything to do with paid advertising, and nothing to do with individuals blogging and sending e-mails.
  • Richard Hasen, Should the FEC Regulate Political Blogging?, Personal Democracy Forum, March 7, 2005
    • They should get a special exemption from reporting and coordination requirements, but they should have to disclose on their sites payments from candidates or committees to take a particular position in a federal race.
  • Brian Faler, Groups Weigh In on Web Politicking, Washington Post, June 5, 2005
    • The lawmakers …said bloggers who take money from political campaigns should not have to disclose that on their Web sites…also said that bloggers who incorporate for liability purposes should not have to abide by rules barring corporations from contributing to political candidates.
  • John Borland, Want to vote? Text me now, C|Net News.com, October 19, 2005
    • turn the immediacy and near-ubiquity of cell phones into a powerful tool of political organization and mobilization.
  • Declan McCullagh, Election commission takes light touch with Net regs, C|Net News, March 24, 2006
    • The rules say that paid Web advertising..will be regulated like political advertising in other types of media…bloggers can enjoy the freedoms of traditional news organizations when endorsing a candidate or engaging in political speech.
  • Vice Chairman Lenhard & Commissioner Weintraub, FEC Internet Rulemaking - Background and FAQ, Federal Election Commission, March 24, 2006
    • The new definition of “public communication” continues to exclude communications over the Internet, except for advertisements placed on another person’s website.
  • Amendments to the Final Rule (pdf), Federal Election Commission, March 27, 2006
    • an employee’s “occasional, isolated, or incidental use” of computer equipment and Internet services fo Federal campaign activities would not be an expenditure or contribution by the corporation or labor organization.
  • Anne Broache, Feds approve liberal election rules for Net, C|Net News, March 27, 2006
    • Paid political advertising appearing on someone else's Web site would have to be reported, regardless of how little or how much it costs. But that responsibility would lie with the candidate, political party or committee backing the ad–not a Web site accepting the ads.
  • Jon Pincus, A wiki, saving democracy?, September 18, 2008
    • Almost all voter suppression relies to a large extent on information asymmetry.
    • 정당·후보자에 대한 지지·반대의 글을 게시할 수 있도록 하는 경우에는 실명확인을 거치도록 함으로써 후보자에 대한 인신공격이나 각종 흑색선전이 줄어들 수 있고, 이로 인하여 선거의 공정성의 확보 효과를 거둘 수 있음이 예상되므로 수단의 적합성도 인정
    • 인터넷은 개방성, 상호작용성, 탈중앙통제성, 접근의 용이성, 다양성 등을 기본으로 하는 사상의 자유시장에 가장 근접한 매체이다. 즉, 인터넷은 저렴한 비용으로 누구나 손쉽게 접근이 가능하고 가장 참여적인 매체로서, 표현의 쌍방향성이 보장되고, 정보의 제공을 통한 의사표현 뿐 아니라 정보의 수령, 취득에 있어서도 좀 더 능동적이고 의도적인 행동이 필요하다는 특성을 지니므로, 일반유권자도 인터넷 상에서 정치적 의사표현이나 선거운동을 하고자 할 개연성이 높고, 경제력 차이에 따른 선거의 공정성 훼손이라는 폐해가 나타날 가능성이 현저히 낮으며, 매체 자체에서 잘못된 정보에 대한 반론과 토론, 교정이 이루어질 수 있고, 국가의 개입이 없이 커뮤니케이션과 정보의 다양성이 확보될 수 있다는 점에서 확연히 대비된다. (이러한) 점 등을 고려하면, 이 사건 법률조항에서 선거일전 180일부터 선거일까지 인터넷상 선거와 관련한 정치적 표현 및 선거운동을 금지하고 처벌하는 것은 후보자 간 경제력 차이에 따른 불균형 및 흑색선전을 통한 부당한 경쟁을 막고, 선거의 평온과 공정을 해하는 결과를 방지한다는 입법목적 달성을 위하여 적합한 수단이라고 할 수 없다.
  • Zoe Corbyn, Facebook experiment boosts US voter turnout, Nature, September 12, 2012
    • those who got the informational message voted at the same rate as those who saw no message at all. But those who saw the social message were ….0.4% more likely to head to the polls than either other group.
  • Caltech-MIT Voting Technology Project, Voting -- What Is, What Could Be, July 2001
    • Our data show that between 4 and 6 million votes were lost in the 2000 election.
  • Kim Zetter, Open-Source E-Voting Heads West, Wired News, January 21, 2004
    • all voting code should be open source so the public can ensure that the code is doing what it's supposed to do and doesn't contain security flaws.
  • Kim Zetter, Risky E-Vote System to Expand, Wired News, January 26, 2004
    • an Internet voting system that allows ballots to be cast through personal computers would be vulnerable to viruses and worms, spoofing attacks..or a DoS attack
  • Michigan Dems Vote Online, Wired News, February 6, 2004
    • People shop online every day. Businesses do online financial transactions worth trillions of dollars. Why shouldn't you be able to vote online?
  • Adam Berinsky, The Perverse Consequences of Electoral Reform in the United States, American Politics Research, Volume 31, Number X, 1-21, April 2004
    • Because levels of political engagement currently follow, rather than cross, demographic divisions in the electorate, reforms designed to make voting “easier” magnify the existing socioeconomic biases in the composition of the electorate.
  • Liebman, Benjamin L. and Wu, Tim, China's Network Justice (January 9, 2007). Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 07-143.
    • in a country with a weak judiciary, the ease of criticism made possible by cheap communications technology can pose a serious threat to the legitimacy and power of the courts…where the judiciary is weak, and its decisions inconsistent, herding may be an important political strategy
  • Jennifer Lee, Guerrilla Warfare, Waged With Code, New York Times, October 10, 2002
    • Fighting restrictions on the use of the Internet can be difficult because the governments imposing the limits often control the technological infrastructure in their countries.
  • Patrick Di Justo, Does the End Justify the Means?, Wired News, March 18, 2003
    • Diebert and his team have discovered that pornography and government criticism are the subjects most frequently blocked by non-democratic countries.
  • Jim Kerstetter, Group says Yahoo helped jail Chinese journalist, C|Net News.com, September 6, 2005
    • detailed information that helped them link Shi's personal e-mail account and a specific message containing the “state secret” to the IP address of his computer.
  • Alorie Gilbert, Handbook offers tips for cyberdissidents, C|Net News.com, September 22, 2005
    • Bloggers are often the only real journalists in countries where the mainstream media is censored or under pressure
  • Tom Zeller Jr., Critics Press Companies on Internet Rights Issues, New York Times, November 8, 2005
    • the Chinese government has been able to use Cisco's technology to filter Web traffic within the country and conduct surveillance of Internet users there.
  • Declan McCullagh, U.S. protests Net summit crackdown, C|Net News.com, November 18, 2005
    • Ben Ali has received international notoriety for the extensive Internet censorship and surveillance conducted by his secret police forces.
  • John Markoff, Skype Text Is Monitored in China, International New York Times, October 2, 2008
    • each time he typed a particular swear word into the text messaging program an encrypted message was sent to an unidentified Internet address.
  • Daniel Lyons, Dictator-Proofing the Internet, Newsweek, February 6, 2011
    • ..developed a software program that can turn regular laptops into nodes on a “mesh network,
  • Michele Kelemen, U.S. Eyes Global Internet Freedoms, NPR newscast, April 8, 2011
    • many governments around the world are “obsessed with control,” spending millions of dollars on technology to crack down on dissent.
  • Vikas Bajaj, India Puts Tight Leash on Internet Free Speech, NY Times, April 27, 2011
    • .. allow officials and private citizens to demand that Internet sites and service providers remove content they consider objectionable on the basis of a long list of criteria.
  • Tom Foremski, Have US companies helped in Egypt Internet crackdown?, ZDNet, January 28, 2011
    • Boeing-owned, California-based company Narus sold Telecom Egypt, the state-run Internet service provider, “real-time traffic intelligence” equipment, more commonly known as Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) technology.
  • Paul Sonne and Max Colchester, Egyptian Government Intrudes on Mobile Operators, WSJ.com, February 4, 2011
    • Telecom companies face particularly acute risks when dealing with governments in countries where they rely on state-owned infrastructure or state-awarded spectrum contracts for their business.
  • Parmy Olson, British Firm Offered Spy Software To Egypt, Forbes, April 27, 2011
    • Digital intelligence firm Gamma International last year tried to sell a type of malware to the Egyptian security service that could infect the computers of dissidents and access their email and other communication tools
    • 다수 : 이 사건 정보통신망법조항에 해당하는 정보를 유통하는 경우에도 이를 형사처벌하는 것이 아니라 해당 정보의 시정요구제도, 취급거부·정지·제한명령제도를 통하여 그 정보에 대한 접근을 차단하거나, 삭제, 해당 사이트의 이용제한을 하는 데 불과…한 점.. 등을 종합하면, 입법자가 이 사건 정보통신망 조항의 금지의무를 위반한 자를 제재하는 수단 및 법적 효과를 설정함에 있어서, 그들의 기본권 침해를 최소화하도록 배려하였다고 볼 수 있으므로, 최소침해성과 법익균형성도 충족한다.
    • 소수 : 이 사건 정보통신망법조항은 사법기관이 아닌 행정기관으로 하여금 특정한 표현행위 자체가 범죄구성요건에 해당하는 위법, 유책한 행위인지 여부를 훨씬 지나쳐 특정한 표현행위가 범죄를 교사, 방조하고 있는 것인지, 더 나아가 범죄의 목적이 있는지 여부까지 자체 판단한 후, 그러한 표현에 대하여 취급거부·정지·제한명령까지 할 수 있도록 하고 있다. 또한 그 규제대상을 모든 범죄 관련 정보로 하여 대단히 포괄적으로 규제하면서, 그 해악의 중대성과 결과발생의 현실적 위험성 등의 요소에 대하여는 전혀 고려하고 있지 않다.
  • James K. Glassman, Singapore’s wrong turn on the Internet, American Enterprise Institute, August 25, 2016
    • cybersecurity is a serious problem, but it needs to be resolved within the context of an utterly free and connected internet.
    • parts of the law such as required security checks on companies in industries like finance and communications, and mandatory in-country data storage will make foreign operations more expensive or lock them out altogether. Individual users will have to register their real names to use messaging services in China.
  • Lance Whitney, China hijacked U.S. Internet data, C|Net News.com, October 22, 2010
    • This diversion of data would have given the operators of the servers on those networks the ability to read, delete, or edit e-mail and other information sent along those paths.
  • Nick Fielding & Ian Cobain, US spy operation that manipulates social media, The Guardian, March 17, 2011
    • an “online persona management service” that will allow one US serviceman or woman to control up to 10 separate identities based all over the world.
  • Mark Gibbs, Lots of "people" you interact with online are sockpuppets, Computerworld, March 24, 2011
    • the practice of using sockpuppets has moved from ad hoc, user ploys to hide or obfuscate personal goals, through to corporations using them to service marketing strategies, to becoming integral to government surveillance programs
  • Chris Strohm, Russia Weaponized Social Media in U.S. Election, FireEye Says, Bloomberg, December 1, 2016
    • The campaign also includes what FireEye terms “direct advocacy,” in which the personas direct tweets promoting stolen or false information at the accounts of influential people such as journalists, and “indirect advocacy”in which social-media accounts seemingly unaffiliated with the personas also engage in promotion.
    • 일부의 우호적인 글은 베스트 오브 베스트로 가게 상위권으로 올리고, 추천 수를 조작하는 행동이나 모습들이 보였고 그다음에 정부를 비판하는 글들은 보고를 해서 요주의 인물 내지는 임시조치 또는 다양한 방식으로 차단하거나 아니면 겁을 주는 행동들이 있기 때문에 이게 문제라는 거죠.
  • Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody, The Penguin Press, February 2008
    • Now the organization of group effort can be invisible, but the results can be immediately visible. Because the cost of sharing and coordinating has collapsed, new methods of organization are available to ordinary citizens, methods that allow events to be arranged without P.169much advance planing
  • Colin Moynihan, City Subpoenas Creator of Text Messaging Code, NY Times, March 30, 2008
    • The people sending and receiving the messages were using technology, developed by an anonymous group of artists and activists called the Institute for Applied Autonomy, that allowed users to form networks and transmit messages to hundreds or thousands of telephones.
    • supporters of the activists say the arrests are linked to the call for nationwide protests against the government made on Facebook under the headline “11 March - Great People's Day in Azerbaijan”.
  • Janine Zacharia, Signs of dissent becoming more visible among youth in Saudi Arabia, Washington Post, March 10, 2011
    • Inspired by their counterparts in Tunisia, Egypt and other parts of the Arab world, Jiddah’s 20-somethings are ablaze on Facebook, blogs and Twitter, tweeting away on iPhones and BlackBerrys about government corruption and the need for political reform, while organizing social gatherings such as those at the bookstore that have long been taboo.
  • Carole Cadwalladr, Robert Mercer: the big data billionaire waging war on mainstream media, The Guardian, 26 February 2017
    • Cambridge Analytica makes the astonishing boast that it has psychological profiles based on 5,000 separate pieces of data on 220 million American voters – its USP is to use this data to understand people’s deepest emotions and then target them accordingly. The system, according to Albright, amounted to a “propaganda machine”