감시사회와 사생활의 자유

상업화의 바람 속에서, 인터넷은 감시기술을 중심으로 발전합니다. 상품 판매, 망 이용대금 부여와 망 관리를 보다 효율적으로 하고자 하는 기업의 욕구는 컴퓨터에 일정한 자취 내지 기록을 남기는 방향으로 인터넷을 이끕니다. 이런 방향의 발전은 다음 단계로 맞춤형 추천 또는 광고를 위해서 개인의 인터넷 사용내역을 기록하기 시작합니다. 스마트폰의 확산으로 모든 개인은 물리적으로 기계를 소지하고 다닙니다. 그 결과 개개인의 이동 내역은 물론 건강 상태까지 모든 행동을 기록하기 시작합니다. 소셜네트워크는 개인에 대한 정보를 넘어 개인 사이의 관계에 대한 정보를 기록합니다.

개인에 대한 모든 기록은 데이터베이스화 되고 분석될 뿐 아니라, 분석 결과를 가지고 개개인을 자극하고 그 결과를 다시 기록하고 분석하여 정교하게 발전합니다. 인공지능은 이러한 사람 사이의 데이터를 분석하는데 최적화 되어 발전합니다. 이른바 기계(Mind Control Machine)가 사람의 마음을 조정할 수 있게 됩니다.

암호기술의 의미

    • The deployment of key recovery systems designed to facilitate surreptitious government access to encrypted data and communications introduces substantial risks and costs.
    • Key recovery systems are inherently less secure, more costly, and more difficult to use than similar systems without a recovery feature.
  • Eben Moglen, So Much For Savages, Comments on Encryption Policy, NYU Law School, November 19, 1998 (revised).
    • The methods of communication are new, but the principles -in whatever language you express them, and it's your choice- are very familiar indeed.
  • Ronald L. Rivest, Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption, MIT Lab for Computer Science, April 24, 1998.
    • As a consequence of the existence of chaffing and winnowing, one can argue that attempts by law enforcement to regulate confidentiality by regulating encryption must fail, as confidentiality can be obtained effectively without encryption and even sometimes without the desire for confidentiality by the two communicants.
  • David Chaum, Achieving Electronic Privacy, Scientific American, August 1992
    • I have developed an extension of digital signatures, called blind signatures, that can restore privacy. Before sending a note number to the bank for signing, Alice in essence multiplies it by a random factor.
    • Recent innovations in microelectronics make this vision practical by providing personal “representatives” that store and manage their owners' pseudonyms, credentials and cash.

암호 기술 규제 수출제한

    • U.S. national policy should be changed to support the broad use of cryptography in ways that take into account competing U.S. needs and desires for individual privacy, international economic competitiveness, law enforcement, national security, and world leadership.
  • Encryption Export Control Regulations, 15 C.F.R. sect. 742.15, as of January 1, 1999
    • Licenses are required for exports and reexports to all destinations, except Canada, for items controlled under ECCNs having an “EI” (for “encryption items”) under the “Control(s)” paragraph.
  • Anti-virus Software and Info-War, New York Times, January 30, 1997
    • The United States Government wants to deprive the residents of those seven nations of anti-virus software because the Pentagon has determined that it might want to use computer viruses as a weapon to attack the data centers of their governments.
  • John Markoff, White House May Tighten Data Exports, New York Times, November 24, 1997
    • The Clinton Administration is debating whether to further tighten controls on the export of electronic data scrambling systems by narrowing a special exemption that has let financial institutions export the strongest encryption technology.
  • Jeri Clausing, Congress Faces List of Internet Issues, New York Times, January 28, 1998.
    • The bill being backed by virtually everyone but the FBI to ease export restrictions on encryption technology and prohibit any mandatory third-party decryption systems was nearly gutted in the fall
  • Jeri Clausing, New Encryption Legislation Billed as a Compromise, New York Times, May 13, 1998.
    • It is the first, however, to lay out comprehensive privacy protections for computer data and communications while also trying to appease law enforcement agencies by creating a new encryption research cente
  • Jeri Clausing, Encryption Debate Heats Up in Washington, New York Times, June 9, 1998
    • Industry and privacy advocates are seeking legislation to lift the current export controls on strong encryption software. The administration, however, at the urging of the FBI, has insisted that any easing of export controls must be coupled with a key-recovery system
  • Carl S. Kaplan, Is Software Like a Can Opener or a Recipe?, New York Times, July 17, 1998
    • Judge Gwin concluded that encryption source code is not deserving of First Amendment protection because it is not “expressive” but rather is an “inherently functional” device
    • After four years and one regulatory change, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that software source code was speech protected by the First Amendment and that the government's regulations preventing its publication were unconstitutional.
  • Jeri Clausing, Lawmakers Renew Encryption Battle, New York Times, February 26, 1999
    • Since strong encryption is widely available worldwide, efforts to control its spread through export controls will ultimately prove fruitless, benefiting no one but America's competitors
  • Jeri Clausing, Senator Ends Opposition to Encryption Software Exports, New York Times, April 2, 1999
    • Senator McCain announced this week that he would join Senators Conrad Burns, Patrick J. Leahy and Ron Wyden in sponsoring a bill that would replace the Administration's current prohibitions on the export of strong encryption with a review process
  • Jeri Clausing, Former Allies May Back Different Encryption Bills, New York Times, April 6, 1999
    • Sobel said the criminal provision of SAFE “creates a dangerous precedent…We feel that opens the door to more domestic controls, saying the use of this technology is a suspect activity.
  • Peter Wayner, Court Calls Encryption Rules Unconstitutional, New York Times, May 7, 1999
    • the federal export regulations “operate as a prepublication licensing scheme that burdens scientific expression” and thus were prohibited by the First Amendment.
  • Steven Lee Myers, Justice Dept. Proposes Bill to Fight Computer Encryption, New York Times, August 20, 1999
    • The legislation, which the department has drafted and hopes to submit to Congress soon, would allow investigators to request special permission from judges to enter suspects' homes or offices to search computers for passwords or encryption programs as a prelude to more invasive searches or wiretaps, the officials said.
  • John Markoff, A Mysterious Component Roils Microsoft, New York Times, September 4, 1999
    • A cryptographer for a Canadian software firm, dissecting a piece of Microsoft security software, made an unexpected find: an element in the Windows operating system labeled “NSAKey.”
  • Peter Wayner, Why a Small Software Label Raised Eyebrows, New York Times, September 4, 1999
    • Most critics are still worried about the possibility that the technique would allow whoever holds this second key to slip broken encryption software onto someone's computer.
  • Jeri Clausing, White House Eases Export Controls on Encryption, New York Times, September 17, 1999
    • The new regulations will allow American companies to ship encryption products of any strength around the world to commercial firms, individuals and other non-government users after a one-time technical review by an interagency panel.

백도어와 감청

  • Jeri Clausing, New Fight Over Encryption Rules, September 21, 1999
    • The proposal would commit $80 million over the next four years to a research center to help law enforcement agencies learn how to crack codes on their own. It would also establish a legal framework that would give investigators access to spare keys to encrypted data that are stored with third parties. In addition, it would guarantee the protection of industry trade secrets when companies assist officers trying to access the encrypted communications of suspected criminals.
  • Reuters, Tracking of Swiss Mobile Phone Users Starts Row, InfoBeat, December 28, 1997
    • Swiss police have secretly tracked the whereabouts of mobile phone users via a telephone company computer that records billions of movements going back more than half a year
  • Niall Mckay, European Parliament Debates Wiretap Proposal, New York Times, May 7, 1999
    • Enfopol would require Internet service providers, telephone companies and satellite-based communications companies to provide an electronic “back door” for law enforcement agencies to use to access communications.
  • John Markoff, U.S. Drafting Plan for Computer Monitoring System, New York Times, July 28, 1999
    • a sophisticated software system to monitor activities on nonmilitary Government networks and a separate system to track networks used in crucial industries like banking, telecommunications and transportation.
  • Declan McCullogh, Cell Phone Crypto Penetrated, Wired News, December 6, 1999
    • Because of Biryukov and Shamir's real-time attack against A5/1 and our group's 15 millisecond attack against A5/2, all the GSM voice privacy ciphers used worldwide can be broken by an attacker with just a single PC and some radio hardware,
  • Saul Hansell, Phorm’s All-Seeing Parasite Cookie, NY Times, April 7, 2008
    • One interesting aspect of the plans by Phorm, a company building an advertising targeting system, is that it has found a way to make cookies do what so many feared they could: track every page you visit on the Internet.
  • Faisal Enayat Khan, Sweden sets sights on new snoop law, The Local, June 11, 2008
    • If passed, the new law will enable Sweden's National Defence Radio Establishment (Försvarets Radioanstalt - FRA) to scan all the outgoing and incoming communication crossing Sweden’s borders. The legislation will also require all telecom operators in Sweden to bring their systems into line with FRA’s surveillance system.
  • Laura Margottini, Snoop software makes surveillance a cinch, New Scientist, August 23, 2008
    • the system integrates tasks typically done by separate surveillance teams or machines, pooling data from sources such as telephone calls, email and internet activity, bank transactions and insurance records. It then sorts through this mountain of information using software that Siemens dubs “intelligence modules”.
  • Paul Ohm, The Rise and Fall of Invasive ISP Surveillance, University of Colorado Law School, August 30, 2008
    • ISP can necessarily access even more because it owns and operates the only point on the network which sits between a user and the rest of the Internet
    • The new unified law should regulate all monitoringwithout distinguishing between whether the monitoring is of content or not
    • in the merged new law, the “rights and property” and “rendition of service” exceptions should be split into incident response and long-term monitoring exception
  • Declan McCullagh, U.N. agency eyes curbs on Internet anonymity, Cnet News, September 12, 2008
    • A United Nations agency is quietly drafting technical standards, proposed by the Chinese government, to define methods of tracing the original source of Internet communications and potentially curbing the ability of users to remain anonymous.
  • Manisha Ganguly, WhatsApp vulnerability allows snooping on encrypted messages, The Guardian, 13 January 2017
    • WhatsApp can effectively continue flipping the security keys when devices are offline and re-sending the message, without letting users know of the change till after it has been made, providing an extremely insecure platform

공인인증서 문제

  • 강일용, 바보야, 문제는 액티브X가 아니라 공인인증서야, 아이티 동아, 2014. 3. 25.
    • 외국 은행 대부분이 이렇게 자체 개발한 보안 방식을 적용해 삼중, 사중 보안을 취하고 있다. 반면 국내 은행은 정부가 지정해준 공인인증서에만 보안을 기대고 있다.

익명권

    • Under our Constitution, anonymous pamphleteering is not a pernicious, fraudulent practice, but an honorable tradition of advocacy and of dissent. Anonymity is a shield from the tyranny of the majority.
  • Paul Ohm, Broken Promises of Privacy: Responding to the Surprising Failure of Anonymization, UCLA Law Review, Vol. 57, p. 1701, 2010, August 13, 2009
    • Yet reidentification science exposes the underlying promise made by these laws that anonymization protects privacy as an empty one, as broken as the technologists’ promises.
    • When they identify harm that outweighs these benefits, they should regulate, focusing on narrow contexts and specific sectors rather than trying to regulate broadly across industries.
    • 개인임을 특정할수 있는 정보 개념의 발전과정과 문제점에 관하여 1731- 1741 참조.
    • 인터넷 공간에서 이루어지는 익명표현은 인터넷이 가지는 정보전달의 신속성 및 상호성과 결합하여 현실 공간에서의 경제력이나 권력에 의한 위계구조를 극복하여 계층·지위·나이·성 등으로부터 자유로운 여론을 형성함으로써 다양한 계층의 국민 의사를 평등하게 반영하여 민주주의가 더욱 발전되게 한다. 따라서 비록 인터넷 공간에서의 익명표현이 부작용을 초래할 우려가 있다 하더라도 그것이 갖는 헌법적 가치에 비추어 강하게 보호되어야 한다.
  • Sobel, Richard, The degradation of political identity under a national identification system, Boston University journal of science & technology law, 01/01/2002
    • By transforming individuals' identities from the inherent qualities of persons who have and deserve dignity and general protection under the Constitution to attributes represented by numbers, cards, and places in databanks, the process degrades the moral value of political and personal identity as an intrinsic quality of personhood.

실제

  • Peter Wayner, Traveling the Web Invisibly, Through a One-Way Mirror, New York Times, November 5, 1997
    • One of the most impressive such schemes is the Lucent Personalized Web Assistant developed by Yossi Matias, a researcher at Bell Labs. His software strips out personalized identifications and prevents Web sites from tracking surfers' movements or creating dossiers about them.
    • We situate around the world a number of nodes which we call “rewebbers” (collectively, these nodes are known as the “rewebber network”). Each node is essentially an HTTP proxy which understands “nested” URLs
    • We therefore create a virtual namespace called the .taz namespace, and we create new servers called “TAZ servers” to resolve this namespace.
  • John Schwartz, Corporate Case in Ohio Raises Questions on Internet Anonymity, New York Times, October 17, 2000
    • the civil liberties groups argue that at the very moment the power of the Internet is helping to create the biggest marketplace of ideas the world has ever seen, powerful companies will be able to squelch online speech by using the courts as a “private detective service” to unmask critics
  • Associated Press, Anonymous Net Posting Not Protected, October 17, 2000
    • a Florida appeals court declared Monday that Internet service providers must divulge the identities of people who post defamatory messages on the Internet.

웹에 행위가 기록되기 시작하다.

  • Amitai Etzioni, Some Privacy, Please, for E-Mail, New York Times, November 23, 1997
    • While statistics differ, various surveys agree that more than a third of corporations regularly monitor their employees electronically,
  • Bill Helling, Web-Site Sensitivity to Privacy Concerns, First Monday, February 1998
    • the Web has become more sensitive to the privacy concerns of its users while, at the same time, increasingly resorting to the employment of privacy-threatening registration and cookies.
  • It Isn't Just Big Brother Who Is Watching, CyberTimes, January 12, 1998
    • Workers in Virginia, Texas and California said they had been dismissed or disciplined for the content of their Web pages, even though the pages are maintained with their own computers, time and money
  • Philip Shenon, Navy and America Online Settle Case on Gay Privacy, New York Times, June 12, 1998
    • America Online, which divulged the sailor's real name to the Navy, agreed to pay him damages for violating his privacy. Under the Navy's part of the agreement, the 36-year-old sailor will retire with full benefits and with tens of thousands of dollars to pay his legal fees.
  • Jeri Clausing, Intel Alters Plan Said to Undermine PC Users' Privacy, New York Times, January 26, 1999
    • Intel.. announced last week that each of its new Pentium III chips would have an identifying serial number that would enhance the security of electronic commerce and guard against software piracy.
  • Joel Brinkley, FTC Says GeoCities Violated Privacy Rules, New York Times, August 14, 1998
    • GeoCities misled its customers, both children and adults, by not telling the truth about how it was using their personal information
  • Saul Hansell, Big Web Sites to Track Steps of Their Users, New York Times, August 16, 1998
    • it places a unique identifying number on the computer hard drive of every person who visits one of the participating sites. That way the system can keep track of all the sites visited by that computer, regardless of the identity of its user.
  • David F. Gallagher, Amazon Tries to Ease Privacy Worries, New York Times, August 30, 1999
    • The purchase circles, which Amazon.com introduced on Aug. 20, comprise thousands of best-seller lists that enable customers to browse and see what books, music and videos are popular among various groups of people – by categories that include geography, employer, university or professional organization.
  • Sara Robinson, CD Software Is Said to Monitor Users' Listening Habits, New York Times, November 1, 1999
    • RealJukebox, which can copy music to a user's hard drive and download it from the Internet as well as play it, gathers information on what music users are playing and recording.
  • Sara Robinson, RealNetworks to Stop Collecting User Data, New York Times, November 2, 1999
    • The information, which includes the user's music preferences, the type of portable player installed on the computer and the number of songs stored on the user's hard drive, is tagged with a unique number, known as a Globally Unique Identifier, which is assigned to the user when the software is registered.
  • Jeffrey Rosen, The Eroded Self, New York Times, April 30, 2000
    • In cyberspace, there is no real wall between public and private. And the version of you being constructed out there - from bits and pieces of stray data - is probably not who you think you are.
  • Wired News, Privacy Group Drops Amazon, September 14, 2000
    • The changes included notice that customers' personal information could be shared with other companies
  • Constance L. Hays, What Wal-Mart Knows About Customers' Habits, New York Times, November 14, 2004
    • Plenty of retailers collect data about their stores and their shoppers, and many use the information to try to improve sales.
  • Brett Winterford, Logged in or out, Facebook is watching you, ZDNet.au, December 4, 2007
    • social networking site Facebook is able to track the buying habits of its users on affiliated third-party sites even when they are logged out of their account or have opted out of its controversial “Beacon” tracking service.
  • Chris Soghoian, Debunking Google's log anonymization propaganda, Cnet, Sep. 11, 2008
    • The simple truth is that any IP anonymization technique, no matter how strong or weak, is simply a waste of time, if cookie values are not also anonymized.
  • Chris Jay Hoofnagle & Nathan Good, The Web Privacy Census, berkeley-center-for-law-technology, October 2012,
    • Percentage of cookies set by a third party host : 84.7%

무선전화 및 스마트폰 - 휴대용 감시장치

  • Andrew Brandt, Soon, Your Cell Phone May Be Tracking You, PC World, April 2004
    • ULocate is among the first of the new cell phone tracking services. Once you sign up, you can find a phone's last known location, see the path it has traveled, and get the average speed at which it moved from one place to another.
  • John Leyden, Smart Phone Predicts Owner's Behavior, The Register, November, 25 2004
    • the “smarter smartphone” learns about people's preferences..This information would be sent to a server which processes data and returns suggestions or reminders.
  • James Kanter, Greek cellphones tapped, International Herald Tribune, February 3, 2006
    • Greek government officials said Thursday that 100 cellphone lines, including one belonging to Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis, were tapped during the 2004 Athens Games.
    • mobile phone companies will have a year to build up a database of their clients, complete with fingerprints…The plan also requires operators to store all cell phone information such as call logs, text and voice messages, for one year.
  • Chris Soghoian, Obama's BlackBerry brings personal safety risks, CNet, February 12, 2009
    • The news coverage and analysis by armchair security experts thus far has failed to focus on the real threat: attacks against President Obama's location privacy, and the potential physical security risks that come with someone knowing the president's real-time physical location.
  • Stephen Baker, Mapping a New, Mobile Internet, Business Week, February 26, 2009.
    • The phone in your hand is the bridge between the virtual and real worlds
  • Cade Metz, Google taps your IP address for Starbucks targeting, The Register, April 7, 2009
    • “When you search on Google, we will guess where you are and show results near you,” the post reads. “In most cases, we match your IP address to a broad geographical location.”
  • David Harley, Every picture tells a story, SC Magazine, April 13, 2011
    • you can harvest information about someone's location at the time a picture was taken that you can build on to establish a bigger picture of their movements and activities.
  • Mike Elgan, Snooping: It's not a crime, it's a feature, Computerworld, April 16, 2011
    • Host Leo Laporte and his panel shocked listeners by unmasking three popular apps that activate your phone's microphone to collect sound patterns from inside your home, meeting, office or wherever you are.
  • Richard H. Thaler, Show Us the Data. (It’s Ours, After All.), NY Times, April 23, 2011
    • If a business collects data on consumers electronically, it should provide them with a version of that data that is easy to download and export to another Web site.
  • Robert Lee Hotz, The Really Smart Phone, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 2011
    • People can get this god's-eye view of human behavior.
    • 개인의 니즈를 파악하기 위해서는 개인의 성향과 개인이 처한 상황에 대한 정보가 필요하다. 그 중에서도 개인이 처한 상황을 정확히 알아내는 것이 보다 중요하다. 개인이 필요로 하는 정보는 개인의 성향보다 개인이 처한 상황에 의존적이 되는 경향이 크기 때문이다
  • Violet Blue, 2016's biggest privacy threat: Your phone, engadget, 12. 16. 2016
    • We've been boxed into this privacy nightmare by our smartphones, which literally don't allow us to have a functional phone unless we formally agree to its legally binding Terms of Service.

Locationgate

  • Charles Arthur, iPhone keeps record of everywhere you go, The Guardian, April 20, 2011
    • Security researchers have discovered that Apple's iPhone keeps track of where you go and saves every detail of it to a secret file on the device which is then copied to the owner's computer when the two are synchronised.
  • Declan McCullag, Android data tied to users? Some say yes, CNET, April 22, 2011
    • That depends in large part on whether Google anonymizes the location information and device ID that it collects from Android devices–and, especially, how long data is kept.
  • Declan McCullagh, Microsoft collects locations of Windows phone users, CNET, April 25, 2011
    • Windows Phone 7.. transmits to Microsoft a miniature data dump including a unique device ID, details about nearby Wi-Fi networks, and the phone's GPS-derived exact latitude and longitude.
    • if major handset makers such as Motorola chose to pay for Skyhook’s location technology over Google’s own free software, the search company ran the risk of having an imperfect picture of Wi-Fi locations.

이미지 인식 기술

얼굴 인식 기술

  • Airports trial facial recognition, BBC News, April 25, 2008
    • Holders of new UK and EU biometric passports will pass through unmanned gates that will scan their faces and match them to records.
  • 권혜미, 어디서든 긴장해라, CCTV가 지켜보니까, bloter.net, 2014.03.26
    • 통합관제센터는 서로 다른 공공기관이 다양한 목적에 따라 설치·운영하고 있는 영상정보처리 기기들을 통합적으로 연계해 집중화된 시설에서 관리하는 체계를 말한다. 현재 대부분의 기초지방자치단체가 통합관제센터를 운영하고 있다
    • 이 시스템이 구축되면 경찰의 경우 여러 지역을 거쳐 도주하는 범인을 잡기 위해 서울시내 전역의 CCTV영상을 자치구에 일일이 요청하지 않아도 112센터에서 접속 권한을 갖고 한번에 보고 대처할 수 있게 된다.

타투

RFID

  • Declan McCullagh, RFID Tags: Big Brother in small packages, C|Net News.com, January 13, 2003
    • we could be tracked because we'll be wearing, eating and carrying objects that are carefully designed to do so.
    • The privacy threat comes when RFID tags remain active once you leave a store.
  • Kim Zetter, School RFID Plan Gets an F, Wired News, Feb. 10, 2005
    • requires students to wear identification badges embedded with radio frequency, or RFID, chips.
  • Jacqueline Emigh, RSA Finds More Flaws in RFID, eWeek.com, Mar. 23, 2005
    • they were able to circumvent the tags built-in security enough to buy gasoline and turn on a cars ignition.
  • Mark Baard, RFID Cards Get Spin Treatment, Wired News, Mar. 29, 2005
    • The Homeland Security Department is playing word games to dodge the privacy debate raging over RFID tags
  • Beth Bacheldor, RFID Takes Root in Bangladesh, RFID Journal, Jan. 15, 2008
    • hands-free access control and employee-tracking systems, as well as asset management, are the most popular applications businesses are asking for.
  • Steve Boggan Cracked it, The Guardian, Nov 17, 2006
    • the key to opening up the secure chip was contained in the passports themselves
  • 이경규, 미국법상 상품의 위치정보와 소비자 보호, 정보법학 11권 2호(2007)
    • 마케팅 차원에서 이루워지는 끊임없는 소비자 정보 분석·가공은 더욱 정밀해 질 것이다. 인맥관계·성적취향·정치적 성향등의 민감한 정보들이 DB화 될 것이다
  • Maggie Astor, Microchip Implants for Employees? One Company Says Yes, The New York Times, JULY 25, 2017
    • A microchip implanted today to allow for easy building access and payments could, in theory, be used later in more invasive ways: to track the length of employees’ bathroom or lunch breaks, for instance, without their consent or even their knowledge.

정부가 눈을 뜨다

  • Ryan Singel, U.S. Cell-Phone Tracking Clipped, Wired News, October 28, 2005
    • When the government seeks to turn a mobile telephone into a means for contemporaneously tracking the movements of its user, the delicately balanced compromise that Congress has forged between effective law enforcement and individual privacy requires a showing of probable cause
  • Ellen Nakashima, Cellphone Tracking Powers on Request, The Washington Post, Nov 23, 2007
    • Federal officials are routinely asking courts to order cellphone companies to furnish real-time tracking data so they can pinpoint the whereabouts of drug traffickers, fugitives and other criminal suspects, according to judges and industry lawyers.
  • Matthew Sparkes, Government proposes email and internet tracking, PCPro, August 13, 2008
    • The Government will store “a billion incidents of data exchange a day” as details of every text, email and browsing session in the UK are recorded under new proposals published yesterday.
  • 교육행정정보시스템(NEIS)-갈등을 넘어 교육정보화의 새로운 총아로 : 참여정부 정책보고서2-37 : 참여정부정책보고서 완성본(2008)
    • NEIS는 학생 상담 내용뿐만 아니라 성적, 각종 행동 특성, 몸무게, 키, 학부모 주소 및 이름 등과 같이 학생과 학부모 2000만 명의 개인정보 200여 항목을 담고 있기 때문에 이 같은 정보들이 이익을 추구하는 기업 등에 의해 상업적으로 이용될 수 있고, 또한 국가가 이를 국민통제 수단으로 이용할 수 있다
  • Robert Pear, Privacy Issue Complicates Push to Link Medical Data, NY Times, January 17, 2009
    • President-elect Barack Obama’s plan to link up doctors and hospitals with new information technology, as part of an ambitious job-creation program, is imperiled by a bitter, seemingly intractable dispute over how to protect the privacy of electronic medical records.
  • Jesse McKinley, Marriage Ban Donors Feel Exposed by List, NY Times, January 18, 2009
    • So chilling, apparently, that supporters have filed suit in Federal District Court in Sacramento seeking a preliminary injunction of a state election law that requires donors of $100 or more to disclose their names, addresses, occupations and other personal information.
  • Christopher Soghoian, 8 Million Reasons for Real Surveillance Oversight, paranoia.dubfire.net, December 1, 2009
    • Internet service providers and telecommunications companies play a significant, yet little known role in law enforcement and intelligence gathering.
    • The manager also revealed the existence of a previously undisclosed web portal that Sprint provides law enforcement to conduct automated “pings” to track users. Through the website, authorized agents can type in a mobile phone number and obtain global positioning system (GPS) coordinates of the phone.
  • Michael Isikoff, The Snitch in Your Pocket, Newsweek, Feb 19, 2010
    • the FBI and other law-enforcement outfits have been obtaining more and more records of cell-phone locations – without notifying the targets or getting judicial warrants establishing “probable cause
  • Darlene Storm, U.S. Gov't to Thank for Phone-Wiping Panic Button, PC World, March 30, 2011
    • If a cell phone is confiscated by police or government agency, the panic button app will wipe the cell phone's address book, history, text messages and broadcast the arrest as an emergency alert to fellow activists.
  • Declan McCullagh, How police have obtained iPhone, iPad tracking logs, CNET, April 21, 2011
    • Law enforcement agencies have known since at least last year that an iPhone or iPad surreptitiously records its owner's approximate location, and have used that geolocation data to aid criminal investigations.
  • Matthew Lasar, The gadgets police use to snarf cell phone data, Ars Techica, April 25, 2011
    • The device was “immediately associated” with Diaz's person, and therefore the warrantless search was valid, the California Supreme Court opined in January.
  • Declan McCullagh, Cops to Congress: We need logs of American's test message Cnet, December 3, 2012
    • AT&T, Verizon Wireless, Sprint, and other wireless providers would be required to record and store information about Americans' private text messages for at least two years, according to a proposal that police have submitted to the U.S. Congress.
  • 김태훈, 폰도 망명해야 하나, 주간경향, 2014. 11. 25.
    • 경찰과 방송통신위원회, 이통사 및 제조사 등은 협의를 거쳐 2012년 10월 이후 출시된 국내산 스마트폰 단말기는 이통사가 원격으로 해당 기능을 강제로 켤 수 있게 만들었다.
  • Brian Wheeler, Police surveillance: The US city that beat Big Brother, BBC, 29 September 2016
    • It is still based around a bank of screens, but the camera feeds are augmented by data from weather reports, shipping movements, social media chatter, email records, emergency calls and other data sources.

사회 곳곳에 감시가 이루어 지다

  • Mats Lewan, Worker-monitoring tool now eyeing student cheaters, CNet News, February 13, 2009
    • Norwegian high school students can now use state-provided laptops during exams. But they'd better not access notes, chat with friends, or surf the Web. Cheating will be detected immediately
  • John Leland, Technology helps elderly live independently, International Herald Tribune, February 16, 2009
    • Technologies like eNeighbor come with great promise of improved care at lower cost and the backing of large companies like Intel and General Electric.
  • Evan Ratliff, Gone Forever: What Does It Take to Really Disappear?, Wired, August 13, 2009
    • Even as anonymization technology improves, to the benefit of fugitives, “the ability to pull data from remote locations and cross-reference that data has increased even faster,”
  • Deborah Yao, Web-monitoring software gathers data on kid chats, Associated Press, September 5, 2009
    • Parents who install a leading brand of software to monitor their kids' online activities may be unwittingly allowing the company to read their children's chat messages – and sell the marketing data gathered.
  • Dana Oshiro, Picasa 3.5: Ruining Your Good Name with Face Recognition Tagging, Read Write Web, September 22, 2009
    • Say goodbye to your controlled web presence and say hello to Picasa 3.5. Google released Picasa 3.5 with a slew of new features including facial recognition and name-based batch tagging, faster geo-tagging and better web uploading functionality.
  • Verne G. Kopytoff, Yahoo Will Keep Search Queries for 18 Months, blogs, NY Times, April 18, 2011
    • With the change in policy, Yahoo goes from keeping data the shortest amount of time compared to its rivals to one of the longest. Google retains data for nine months, while Microsoft’s policy is to keep data for six months.
  • Thomas Lowenthal, IP address can now pin down your location to within a half mile, Ars Technica, April 22, 2011
    • The researchers, led by Yong Wang, used a variety of statistical techniques to combine data from 163 public ping servers and 136 traceroute servers into a precise estimate of the range of possible physical locations for a particular IP address.
  • Grant Gross, Trial Version of CAD Software Includes Spyware, PC World, April 28, 2011
    • The lawsuit alleges that TransMagic and ITCA use an anticopying and licensing software package called Sheriff, from vendor Licensing Technologies, which allows users of the package to record user activities to log files.
  • Allan Dodds Frank, Lydia Cacho Blasts Facebook, The Daily Beast, October 21, 2011
    • Every picture uploaded by Facebook users is run through a program called 'Photo DNA' to look for possible matches with offenders. The company saves the data and makes referrals to law-enforcement agencies.
  • Julia Angwin, Own a Vizio Smart TV? It’s Watching You, ProPublica, Nov. 9, 2015
    • Vizio’s Smart TVs track your viewing habits and share it with advertisers, who can then find you on your phone and other devices.
  • Proprietary Surveillance, The Free Software Foundation
    • it also spread dramatically away from the keyboard, in the mobile computing industry, in the office, at home, in transportation systems, and in the classroom.

사물인터넷, 웨어러블

  • 박수진, 안영춘, 빅데이터 업체 “19일 광화문광장 74만 집계”, 한겨례, 2016-11-20
    • 워크인사이트는 휴대폰 무선신호(와이파이, 블루투스 등)를 감지할 수 있는 ‘조이스퀘어’라는 센서를 매장 안에 설치해 매장 밖 유동인구, 방문객, 체류시간 등을 웹 대시보드로 확인

위험성

  • Carolyn Johnson, Project 'Gaydar', The Boston Globe, September 20, 2009
    • just by looking at a person’s online friends, they could predict whether the person was gay.
  • Julian Assange, Who Should Own the Internet?, New York Times, December 4, 2014
    • At their core, companies like Google and Facebook are in the same business as the U.S. government’s National Security Agency.
  • Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph; and Stutzman, Fred (2014) ” Face Recognition and Privacy in the Age of Augmented Reality,” Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality: Vol. 6: Iss. 2, Article 1.
    • Our results show the ability of identifying strangers online(on a dating site where individuals protect their identities by using pseudonyms) and offline(in a public space), based on photos made publicly available on a social network site, and then inferring additional and sensitive information about them.
  • Kaveh Waddell, How Surveillance Stifles Dissent on the Internet, The Atlantic, Apr 5, 2016
    • people who said they think government surveillance is justified about two-thirds of the respondents were likeliest to alter their behavior after they were reminded about government surveillance
    • 통계·지리정보를 결합한 빅데이터 분석은 구글트렌드 같은 인터넷 기반 분석보다 정확하고, 특히 당 조직력이 받쳐준다면 강력한 힘을 발휘한다. 이번 대선을 기점으로 빅데이터 선거운동이 본격화될 것 같다
  • Arthur R. Miller, The National Data Center And Personal Privacy, The Atlantic, Nov, 1967
    • But such a Data Center poses a grave threat to individual freedom and privacy. With its insatiable appetite for information, its inability to forget anything that has been put into it, a central computer might become the heart of a government surveillance system that would lay bare our finances, our associations, or our mental and physical health to government inquisitors or even to casual observers
  • Declan McCullagh, Perspective: the flip side of database snooping, C|Net News.com, February 7, 2005
    • “Law enforcement and intelligence services don't need to design their own surveillance systems from scratch,” O'Harrow writes. “They only have to reach out to the companies that already track us so well.”
  • Tom Owad, Data Mining 101: Finding Subversives with Amazon Wishlists, Applefritter.com, January 4, 2006
    • an individual with access to the internet can still develop a fairly sophisticated profile of hundreds of thousands of U.S. citizens using free and publicly available resources. Here's an example..
    • We logged on to the BA website, bought a ticket in Broer's name and then, using the frequent flyer number on his boarding pass stub, without typing in a password, were given full access to all his personal details - including his passport number, the date it expired, his nationality (he is Dutch, living in the UK) and his date of birth.
  • Juan Carlos Perez, Facebook's Beacon More Intrusive Than Previously Thought, PC World, Nov 30, 2007
    • Beacon will report back to Facebook on members' activities on third-party sites that participate in Beacon even if the users are logged off from Facebook and have declined having their activities broadcast to their Facebook friends
  • Louise Story, To Aim Ads, Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You, NY Times, March 10, 2008
    • Five large Web operations Yahoo, Google, Microsoft, AOL and MySpace record at least 336 billion transmission events in a month, not counting their ad networks.
  • Jonathan Richards, CIA enlists Google's help for spy work, Times Online UK, March 31, 2008
    • US intelligence agencies are using Google's technology to help its agents share information about their suspects
  • Peter Whoriskey, Every Click You Make, Washington Post, April 4, 2008
    • the new monitoring, known as “deep-packet inspection,” enables a far wider view – every Web page visited, every e-mail sent and every search entered.
  • Stephen Baker, The Numerati, August 1, 2008
    • They're rummaging through mountains of data, looking for patterns of our behavior so that they can predict what we might want to buy, who we're likely to vote for, what job we'd do better than our colleagues.
  • Ron Lieber, A (Very) Watchful Eye on Credit Card Spending, NY Times, January 30, 2009.
    • It has also been looking at how you spend your money, searching for patterns or similarities to other customers who have trouble paying their bills.
  • Miguel Helft, Google to Offer Ads Based on Interests, NY Times, March 11, 2009
    • Google’s foray into behavioral targeting may represent the most visible result so far of the company’s integration of DoubleClick, an advertising technology company that it acquired a year ago.
  • Melena Ryzik, Mapping the Cultural Buzz: How Cool Is That?, NY Times, April 6, 2009
    • For the buzz project, snapshots from more than 6,000 events 300,000 photos in all were categorized according to event type, controlled for overly celebrity-driven occasions and geo-tagged at the street level
  • Maha Atal, Advertisers Target Hyper-Social Internet Users, Forbes.com, May 18, 2009
    • The proprietary core of the technology is the behavioral economic model the company uses to determine the relative value of shares to views and thus prioritize users who spread the message over those who simply watch.
  • Steve Lohr, How Privacy Vanishes Online, NY Times, Mar 16, 2010
    • Computer scientists and policy experts say that such seemingly innocuous bits of self-revelation can increasingly be collected and reassembled by computers to help create a picture of a person’s identity
  • 오길영, 감청의 상업화와 그 위법성, 민주법학 제43호, 2010. 7, 419-465쪽.
    • 쿠키를 납치하는 행위 그 자체만을 두고 볼 때 , 이에 대한 법적 평가는 무엇이라 할 수 있는가 ? 묵시적 동의가 인정되지 않는 한 , 통신비밀보호법 제 2 조 제 7 호상의 ‘ 감청 ’ 에 해당한다 .
  • Kaptein, Maurits, Adaptive Persuasive Messages In An E-Commerce Setting: The Use Of Persuasion Profiles, Eindhoven University Of Technology(2-4), 2010
    • First, one should be able to manipulate content presentation such that multiple influence strategies can be implemented. Second, one needs to be able to identify individual consumers. Third, it needs to be possible to measure the outcome of the persuasive attempt and update subsequent product presentations accordingly.
    • This gadget, dubbed the Mynd, looks like your typical EEG headset, but this one is designed to monitor consumers' “deep subconscious responses” to gauge the reaction to advertising and other media content.
  • Lucas Mearian, Big data to drive a surveillance society. Computerworld, March 24, 2011
    • As real-time and batch analytics evolve using big data processing engines such as Hadoop, corporations will be able to track our activities, habits and locations with greater precision than we ever thought possible.
  • Mark Sherman, Court questions limits on use of prescription data, Associated Press, April 26, 2011
    • The Supreme Court cast doubt today on efforts by states to limit drug manufacturers’ use of information about the prescription drugs that doctors like to prescribe.
    • Google acknowledged last year that vehicles taking photographs for the mapping service in several European countries also collected data from unencrypted wireless networks.
  • Jordan Robertson, Customers stay despite high-profile data breaches, Associated Press, May 1, 2011
    • We love it, we use it, we expect it to work, and we've woven it into our daily lives, professionally, socially and personally. But we really don't trust it, and we do get upset when our data is lost or stolen
  • Cristen Conger, Can You Disappear on the Web?, ABC News, May 7, 2011
    • Once you put something out the Internet, it's going to stick around for a long time to come.
  • Jonathan Mayer, The Turn-Verizon Zombie Cookie, webpolicy.org, January 14, 2015
    • If a user’s ID cookie is missing, simply reconstruct it from their Verizon header.
  • Cohen, Julie E., The Biopolitical Public Domain (September 28, 2015).
    • consumers as resources to be themselves cultivated, processed, and consumed
    • the problem is..more fundamentally that it subordinates considerations of human wellbeing to the priorities and values of powerful market actors
  • 장재현 김종대, 테크놀로지, 보험 산업을 바꾸고 있다, LG경제연구원, 2016. 4. 11.
    • 최 근 ICT 기술 발전에서 주목할 만한 부분은 웨어러블, 스마트카 등 IoT 기기들이 확산됨에 따라 이제까지는 얻을 수 없었던 개인별 실시간 데이터를 쉽게 확보할 수 있게 되었다는 점, 그리고 인공지능 기술이 발전되면서 빅데이터를 보다 정확하고 빠르게 분석할 수 있게 되었다는 점이다.
  • Blair Hanley Frank, Salesforce tries to block Microsoft's LinkedIn acquisition, PCWorld, Sep 29, 2016
    • By gaining ownership of LinkedIn’s unique dataset of over 450 million professionals in more than 200 countries, Microsoft will be able to deny competitors access to that data, and in doing so obtain an unfair competitive advantage.
    • 광고 식별을 위해서 구글과 애플은 광고용 가상의 유니크 아이디 값을 만들었습니다. 안드로이드에서는 구글 애드버타이징 아이디(GA ID), iOS는 IDFA(ID For Advertising)이 있고, 모든 모바일광고의 성과 측정은 광고용 유니크 아이디를 활용합니다
  • 송혜리, 구매자 마음 읽고 추천해주는 `스마트매치`, 디지털 타임즈, 2016-12-04
    • 세계최대 쇼핑몰인 아마존 매출의 35%, 미국 최대 VOD 서비스업체인 넷플렉스 매출의 75%, 세계최대 비즈니스 인맥사이트인 링크드인 사용자 중 50%가 추천을 통한 매출과 구직활동
    • 개방형 플랫폼 형태의 데이터 거래소 구축을 추진할 계획이고 데이터의 비식별화 지원과 데이터 결합을 자유롭게 시험할 수 있는 데이터 프리존도 운영할 계획
  • Jack Nicas, Privacy Groups Seek Regulatory Review of Google Privacy Policy, The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 19, 2016
    • The complaint.. centers on Google’s request in June that users opt-in to new privacy settings that enable Google to combine their browsing histories with their search histories to show more personalized ads.
  • Tamsin Shaw, Invisible Manipulators of Your Mind, The New York Review of Books, April 20, 2017
    • The behavioral techniques that are being employed by governments and private corporations do not appeal to our reason; they do not seek to persuade us consciously with information and argument. Rather, these techniques change behavior by appealing to our nonrational motivations, our emotional triggers and unconscious biases.

사람사이의 관계가 기록되다

  • Melody Joy Kramer, Forfeiting privacy, one post at a time, Daily Pennsylvanian.com, November 30, 2005
    • Every blog entry you make and every social networking site you belong to .. can easily be stored on someone's hard drive
  • Jessi Hempel with Paula Lehman, The MySpace Generation, Business Week, December 12, 2005
    • they're already creating new forms of social behavior that blur the distinctions between online and real-world interactions.
  • CBS, MySpace: Your Kids' Danger?, CBS Evening News, February 6, 2006
    • When they think MySpace, they think other teenagers. They don't think there are adults pretending to be teenagers on there.“
  • Social sites dent privacy efforts, BBC News, March 27, 2009
    • one third of those who are on both Flickr and Twitter can be identified from the completely anonymous Twitter graph
  • Randy Abrams, Facebook Retains Right to Exploit Minors, ESET Threat Blog, March 25, 2011
    • Facebook has automatically opted you in so that at any moment they can share your profile picture with advertisers
  • Miguel Helft & Matt Richtel, Facebook Prepares to Add Friends in Washington, NY Times, March 28, 2011
    • One of the big points is to show lawmakers that Facebook is important to their own campaigns..Once that fact is established, Congress will not touch Facebook.
    • the problems associated with privacy are large and systemic, owing partly to the rise of commercial and governmental information gathering..and partly also to the spread of technologies that routinely record what we do.
  • Brian Stelter & Jennifer Preston, Turning to Social Networks for News, NY Times, May 2, 2011
    • we should be cautious about turning over all of our conversations to privately held companies that are in business for their shareholders
  • Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell, and Thore Graepel, Private traits and attributes are predictable from digital records of human behavior,, PNAS, April 9, 2013, vol. 110, no. 15
    • Facebook Likes, can be used to automatically and accurately predict a range of highly sensitive personal attributes…African Americans and Caucasian Americans were correctly classified in 95% of cases, and males and females were..93%…Christians and Muslims were..82%..Democrats and Republicans (85%). Sexual orientation was easier to distinguish among males (88%) than females (75%)
  • Austin Carr, Facebook's Plan To Own Your Phone, FastCompany.com, 06. 16, 2014
    • If deployed widely, App Links would create a knitwork that would connect users to every delicious service and chunk of knowledge they desire without going through a mobile web browser.
  • Alejandro Llorente et al, Social media fingerprints of unemployment, arXiv:1411.3140, November 12, 2014
    • we provide a proof of concept for the use of social media individual digital fingerprints to infer city-level behavioral measure
  • Adrienne LaFrance, Facebook and the New Colonialism, The Atlantic, February 11, 2016
    • Facebook became the de facto Internet for many people because it did the most profoundly useful thing the Internet can do: Connect people.

정부의 관심

  • Tom Espiner, Gov't may track all UK Facebook traffic, ZDNet UK, March 18, 2009
    • a large number of people don't use ISPs' systems to communicate, instead using online services including webmail and social-networking sites
  • Darren Pauli, National biometric pub list use 'explodes', ZDNet, February 1, 2011
    • Pubs and clubs are signing up in droves to national and state biometrics databases that capture patron fingerprints, photos and scanned driver licences in efforts to curb violence.

민주화 도구로서의 가능성

  • Mary Beth Sheridan, Social media curbs pose hurdle for U.S., Washington Post, January 29, 2011
    • the American government has been especially eager to promote Internet freedom in countries like Iran and China with which it has tense relationships.
  • Forrester Research in Best Practices. Social Networks: Good Or Evil?, CIO, February 17, 2011
    • Perhaps more disturbing is the potential for repressive regimes to use our emerging social and corporate networks to aid in the repression of free speech
  • Jennifer Preston, Ethical Quandary for Social Sites, NY Times, March 27, 2011
    • how to accommodate the growing use for political purposes while appearing neutral and maintaining the practices and policies that made these services popular in the first place.

표현의 자유 보호대상에서 통제자로

  • 정채희, 가짜뉴스 파문의 실체? 돈벌이에 놀아난 구글·페북, 디지털 타임즈, 2016. 11. 29.
    • 국내 포털은 전문가로 구성된 뉴스제휴평가위원회(이하 뉴스제휴평가위)의 뉴스 제공사업자 검증 작업과 관련 규정, 단계별 심사를 거쳐 뉴스를 노출하기 때문에 가짜 뉴스 사이트가 검색 결과에 노출될 확률이 극히 적다
  • Robert A. Burton, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love A.I., New York Times, September 21, 2015
    • Let’s give machines the status of a separate species with a distinctly different type of intellect one that is superior in data crunching but is devoid of emotional reasoning. Not better, not worse, just different.
  • 김영혁, 자동차의 ‘서비스화’ 시작되고 있다, LG경제연구원, 2016. 3. 22.
    • 운전자가 필요 없는 자율주행자동차는 차량 공유의 개념을 한층 받아들이기 쉽게 만들어 사람들이 자동차를 ‘소유’의 대상에서 이동성이라는 ‘경험’을 제공해주는 일종의 공공재로 인식하게 만들 수 있다
  • Hiawatha Bray, Is digital justice colorblind?, Boston Globe, May 25, 2016
    • COMPAS, a “risk assessment” program used in courtrooms throughout the United States, produces outcomes that are biased against African-American defendants
  • Keith Naughton, Driverless Cars, Bloomberg, Oct 20, 2016
    • carmakers see a future in which autonomous “transport pods,” often provided by ridesharing services like Uber or Lyft, supplant the tradition of two owner-operated cars in every garage
  • DAISUKE WAKABAYASHI, Google Parent Company Spins Off Self-Driving Car Business, The New York Times, DEC. 13, 2016
    • The challenge for Google is to devise a successful strategy for making money from self-driving cars. Unlike Uber, it doesn’t have a ride-hailing service that can generate fares at least not yet. And unlike Tesla or other automakers, it doesn’t have an auto manufacturing background to build cars or a network to sell them.
  • GIDEON LEWIS-KRAUS, The Great A.I. Awakening, The New York Times, DEC. 14, 2016
    • they don’t assume that “consciousness” is some special, numinously glowing mental attribute..They just believe instead that the complex assortment of skills we call “consciousness” has randomly emerged from the coordinated activity of many different simple mechanisms
  • Stephanie Mlot, MIT: Uber, Lyft Vital in Reducing Congestion, PCMagazine, January 4, 2017
    • A new MIT study suggests ride-sharing services could eliminate 75 percent of the vehicles on public roads, without significantly impacting travel time.
    • 구글이 온라인 플랫폼으로만 남아있을 경우 데이터수집 역량이 순수 하드웨어 제조사들보다 낮아질 가능성이 있다, 이러한 위기감의 발로가 구글이 하드웨어 사업을 본격적으로 시작하도록 했을 것으로 추정된다
  • Ryan Calo, Alex Rosenblat, The Taking Economy: Uber, Information, and Power, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 117, 2017, 22 Mar 2017
    • By virtue of sitting between consumers and providers of services, however, sharing economy firms have a unique capacity to monitor and nudge all participants including people whose livelihood may depend on the platform.
    • What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party.
  • Anders Brownworth, Blockchain 101 - A Visual Demo, YouTube, Nov 5, 2016
    • This is a very basic visual introduction to the concepts behind a blockchain. We introduce the idea of an immutable ledger using an interactive web demo
  • Sandeep Soni, After Internet, it's Blockchain Internet 2.0, Entrepreneur India, February 5, 2017
    • What makes blockchain so acutely disruptive is the data that every transaction, every comment, every click, every website visit, every Google search that we as consumers generate remains under our control stored in the blocks, secured via cryptography and timestamped, and traceable.
  • Frisco d'Anconia, Copyright Issues and Censorship - Key Reasons Why Internet Needs Blockchain, The cointelegraph, SEP 03, 2017
    • While all of the aforementioned projects are not a definite solution to censorship problem, they are providing citizens with the tools their need to protect themselves from it while building the basis for what can one day become a truly free and open Internet.
  • STEVEN JOHNSON, Beyond the Bitcoin Bubble, The New York Time, JAN. 16, 2018
    • We spent our first years online in a world defined by open protocols and intellectual commons; we spent the second phase in a world increasingly dominated by closed architectures and proprietary databases.
  • Jeri Clausing, U.S. and Europe Reach Tentative Pact on Personal Data, New York Times, February 24, 2000
    • For more than two years it has been negotiating to get the EU to accept a “safe harbor” plan that would allow companies that agree to follow specific standards to be exempt from potential legal action or data cutoffs generated by the directives.
  • Maha Atal & Damian Kahya, Google's Legal Battles, New Statesman, August 20, 2009
    • Google uses information we provide to serve us the right advertisements at the right time.
    • 비록 이 사건 개인신상정보가 이미 불특정 다수인에게 공개되고 있는 정보라고 하더라도..위와 같이 산출된 인맥지수는 법조인 간의 친밀도라는 사적이고 인격적인 정보를 내용으로 하는 전혀 별개의 새로운 가치를 갖는 정보이다. 그리고..인맥지수 서비스 보호를 통하여 정보주체인 원고들의 동의 없이 자유롭게 인맥지수를 공개할 수 있도록 함으로써 달성되는 공적 가치의 보호 필요성이 높다고 할 수도 없다.
    • 방문자의 싸이월드 고유 아이디(tid), 방문 일시, 접속 IP, 이름, 그 전에 방문한 미니홈피의 운영자 이름 등 피고인 2가 유료회원들에게 제공한 방문자 접속기록은..정보통신망법 제49조의 ‘타인의 비밀’에 해당한다
    • 개인정보자기결정권의 보호대상이 되는 개인정보는 개인의 신체, 신념, 사회적 지위, 신분 등과 같이 개인의 인격주체성을 특징짓는 사항으로서 그 개인의 동일성을 식별할 수 있게 하는 일체의 정보라고 할 수 있고, 반드시 개인의 내밀한 영역에 속하는 정보에 국한되지 않고 공적 생활에서 형성되었거나 이미 공개된 개인정보까지 포함한다.
    • 홈플러스의 경품응모권에 '개인정보가 보험회사 영업에 활용될 수 있다'는 내용 등 법률상 고지사항이 모두 적혀 있으며, 개인정보 제삼자 유상판매사실을 고객에 통지하지 않은 점은 검찰 주장과 달리 법적 의무가 아니라고 밝혔다.
  • Joe Mullin, Privacy lawsuit over Gmail will move forward, arsTechnica, Aug 16, 2016
    • he plaintiffs are seeking to represent only users who do not use Gmail and have never had a Gmail account, but have still had the content of their emails scanned because they interacted with Gmail users.
    • U-Verse customers in those cities who agree to accept AT&T's “Internet Preferences” ad-targeting program can purchase 1-GB service for $70 a month. Customers who don't want to participate in Internet Preferences are charged $99 a month for the same service.
  • Evan Schuman, The FCC’s new privacy rules are toothless, Computerworld, Oct 31, 2016,
    • If the FCC wanted to truly protect privacy, it would have prohibited ISPs from including this opt-in as part of the agreement to provide services
    • “(경찰이) 폐쇄회로(CC)TV 영상 송출을 차단한 사실은 인정되지만 이를 이용해 집회 참가자들을 감시했다는 증거가 없다”며 “그렇다고(감시를 했다고) 하더라도 홍모씨가 직접 감시를 당했다거나 유출됐었다고 볼 수 없다
    • “They're saying 'yes, we implement differential privacy, trust us, but we’re not going to tell you at what level we do it,'” Korolova says. “By virtue of not revealing what their parameters are, they're kind of breaking any real commitment.”